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How does cystitis manifest in a man and how to treat

Cystitis is an inflammatory disease consisting in irritation and damage to the walls of the bladder.

In fact, women often suffer from cystitis. About 2-3 out of 10 women at least once in their life suffer from this disease. In males, only 1% have cystitis in any form. In most cases, these are men over 45 years old.

The difference in the frequency of diseases between the sexes is due to physiological differences in the structure of their urogenital organs. First of all, men have a very long and sinuous urethra. But the walls of the urethra are an extremely difficult obstacle for pathogenic microorganisms, since immune cells are active in them.

In addition, in the male body, the opening of the urethra is very far from the anus, so pathogenic microflora from the anus is practically excluded from entering the canal.

Anatomical information

The bladder is one of the main organs of the urinary system, designed to collect and remove urine. In the last process, an important role is played by the walls of the organ, which have a muscle base, and due to this are able to stretch.

However, the mucous membrane of the bladder is often injured or exposed to infectious agents. This leads to various diseases. The lower part of the bladder is called the neck. The urethra (urethra) comes out of the neck. Two ureters flow into the upper part - channels through which urine comes from the kidneys.

Classification

The disease has its own varieties, based on the types of provoking factors, the type of course. If we consider the possible consequences of the development of cystitis, then distinguish:

  1. Primary. It is characterized by independent development, that is, the reasons are not associated with pathological processes in the body. For example, taking medications, chemical, toxic effects and so on.
  2. Secondary. Problems are formed already subsequently the course of a particular pathology in the body. Localization of the focus can be outside the cystic or cystic.

There are divisions into bacterial and non-bacterial cystitis. In the first case, the disease develops due to the ingestion of pathological microorganisms on the mucous membrane of the organ, and for non-bacterial infections, the infection does not directly penetrate the tissues of the bladder, inflammation appears in connection with other influences.

The bladder can be affected with different structural changes in the tissues, which underlies the division of diseases into one of the corresponding species. It can be hemorrhagic, catarrhal, interstitial, granulomatous, ulcerative and one of the dangerous conditions - gangrenous and phlegmic cystitis.

Signs of cystitis in men

Acute cystitis makes itself felt, first of all, with acute pain during urination, sometimes radiating to the rectum. Pain is especially severe at the beginning and end of urination. In addition, symptoms of cystitis include pain in the lower abdomen, above the pubis, independent of urination, however, this process intensifies. The amount of emitted urine can be extremely small (10-15 ml), however, the number of urges to urinate can reach several times per hour. After the act of urination, there is a feeling that the bladder is not completely empty. Also, with cystitis, there are often such signs as urinary incontinence, peremptory urge to urinate. An exacerbation of the disease is often accompanied by fever, signs of intoxication (malaise, headache).

Other symptoms of cystitis:

  • discoloration of urine
  • blood, mucus, pus or protein in the urine,
  • unpleasant urine odor.

Often, with the disease, urine reflux occurs. This is the name of the process in which urine goes back to the ureters, and then to the kidneys, which leads to pyelonephritis.

If untreated, acute cystitis transforms into a chronic form. For chronic cystitis, in turn, exacerbations (about 2-3 times a year) are followed by periods of remission. During remission, the symptoms of the disease practically do not appear.

Interstitial cystitis is a severe form of chronic cystitis. With this type of disease, exacerbations occur extremely often, and the patient has constant pain in the groin area.

Diagnostics

If there are signs with a high degree of probability indicating cystitis, you should contact a urologist. At the initial examination, the doctor usually examines the patient's genitals and examines the prostate gland by palpation in the anus. This allows you to establish or exclude the relationship of cystitis in men with other diseases of the male genital organs.

Diagnosis is mainly by general urine analysis. Cystitis can be detected due to its high white blood cell count. Sometimes the determining sign may be the presence of red blood cells, bacteria, epithelial cells, protozoa. Also made:

  • general and biochemical blood test,
  • urine analysis according to Nechiporenko,
  • urine culture to detect an infectious agent.

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is performed if a sexually transmitted infection is suspected.

The ultrasound technique of the bladder is ineffective, since it requires a full bladder, and with this disease the patient is unable to fill it. Nevertheless, ultrasound of the kidneys and prostate can be useful, as it helps to identify concomitant diseases. Procedures such as cystoscopy, urodynamic studies, uroflowgraphy (a study of the speed parameters of the passage of urine through the urethra), and MRI are performed. Cystoscopy is a type of endoscopic examination. It helps to identify stones and neoplasms in the bladder, as well as take a biopsy for analysis.

Cystitis must be differentiated from diseases such as bladder and prostate tumors.

Does men have cystitis

When complaints of painful and frequent urination appear in many patients, the question arises whether there can be cystitis in men. According to statistics, the disease is 4-5 times more often detected in women of childbearing age. No more than 0.5% of men after 40 years of age suffer from cystitis, which is due to the anatomical and physiological characteristics. The narrow and long (compared to the female) male urethra holds up more than 90% of pathogenic microbes, which prevents infection of the bladder.

In 9 out of 10 cases, cystitis in men occurs against the background of other diseases. Inflammation of the urea is mainly associated with stagnation of urine, which occurs when the urinary ducts are squeezed at the level of the subbubble zone or urethra.

Types of Cystitis

Male cystitis is classified according to different criteria:

  • to the course - acute and sluggish (chronic),
  • provocative factor - infectious and aseptic,
  • localization of lesions - cervical, common (diffuse) and focal,
  • origin - primary and secondary,
  • the nature of the changes in the wall of the urea - catarrhal, ulcerative, fibrous, etc.
Determining the form of cystitis facilitates the development of treatment tactics and the selection of treatment methods.

Acute and chronic

Acute inflammation of the urea belongs to the group of primary cystitis, manifested by vivid symptoms. Depending on the cause of inflammation, 2 forms of the disease are distinguished:

  • Infectious. Called by pathogens - fungi, parasites, bacteria.
  • Non-infectious. It is provoked by chemical poisoning, medication, injuries, neurological disorders, radiation exposure.

Acute infectious cystitis is relatively easy to treat. But if you ignore the problem, the inflammation passes into a sluggish form. Clinical manifestations are poorly expressed, so men are in no hurry to see a doctor.

In urology, 3 types of chronic cystitis are distinguished:

  • Latent. Men do not complain about deterioration of health, since there are no external signs of the disease. Changes in the urine are determined during a routine examination, the delivery of laboratory tests.
  • Persistent. Inflammation in the bladder worsens no more than 2-3 times a year. Relapse is indicated by an increased white blood cell count and the presence of protein in the urine.
  • Interstitial. Exacerbations of cystitis occur more than 4-5 times a year. Due to chronic inflammation, men complain of constant pain in the suprapubic zone and dysuria - urination disorders.
Sluggish cystitis is provoked by a bacterial, parasitic infection or trauma.

Primary and secondary

By origin, cystitis is:

  • Primary - an independent disease that occurs without previous changes in the urinary system. This group includes acute, sluggish and parasitic forms of the disease. They occur when men do not observe personal hygiene, hypothermia, after instrumental examinations of the genitourinary system.
  • Secondary - a complication of background diseases leading to stagnation of urine in the bladder or narrowing of the urinary ducts. In half the cases, cystitis occurs with infectious urethritis, urolithiasis, prostatitis, groin injuries, and tumors in the urethra.

Primary cystitis often proceeds acutely, and secondary - in a sluggish form.

Cervical and diffuse

According to the location of the lesions, 2 types of disease are distinguished:

  • Cervical - the cervical region becomes inflamed along with the sphincter of the bladder. As a result, men have urinary incontinence.
  • Diffuse - total inflammation of the urea, accompanied by a defeat of all its departments.

If the lesions are located in the area of ​​the urinary bladder triangle, which is limited by the opening of the urethra and the mouth of the ureters, this disease is called trigonitis.

Catarrhal and ulcerative

Inflammation is accompanied by pathological changes in the structure of the bladder. Depending on their nature, these types of cystitis are distinguished:

  • catarrhal - the mucosa becomes red and swells,
  • necrotic - the affected tissue dies,
  • ulcerative - the mucous and submucous layers of the bladder ulcerate,
  • phlegmonous - pus accumulates in the lesions, due to which the walls of the bladder begin to melt.
The nature of changes in the bladder in men depends on provoking factors, such as the causative agent of the infection. Ulcerative cystitis often occurs with infectious and sluggish inflammation of the mucosa.

Rare forms

Least of all in men, these types of diseases are found:

  • bilharziosis - a tropical disease caused by trematodes (flukes),
  • malakoplakia - a pathology of unknown origin, accompanied by the formation of yellow nodules on the inner surface of the bladder,
  • actinomycosis is a fungal disease that is triggered by parasitic fungi.

In men with purpura, a hemorrhagic form of cystitis is often detected. Depending on the degree of damage to the blood vessels, hemorrhages are punctate, streaky and large-spotted.

Causes of cystitis in men

The causes of cystitis lie in urological diseases, which are accompanied by stagnation of urine and narrowing of the urinary ducts. The outflow of fluid from the urea is prevented by:

  • calculi
  • urethral scarring
  • constriction of the foreskin,
  • urethra tumors
  • BPH.

The main causative agents of cystitis in men include:

  • staphylococci,
  • Proteus,
  • Candida fungi,
  • Klebsiella
  • E. coli.

Pathogenic agents penetrate the bladder in different ways:

  • hematogenous - through the blood,
  • ascending - from the urethra,
  • descending - from the ureter or kidney,
  • lymphogenous - through lymph.
Cystitis affects men with urethritis, epididymitis, sluggish prostatitis and orchitis.

Direct infection of the bladder occurs during an instrumental examination of men with catheterization of the urea. Factors that provoke inflammation in the urinary system include:

  • diabetes,
  • hypothermia
  • non-hygiene
  • spicy food abuse
  • prostate surgery
  • frequent change of sexual partners,
  • vitamin and mineral deficiency.

Urinary tract obstruction in men provokes benign and malignant tumors in the urogenital system, and penile injuries.

Is cystitis transmitted from woman to man

Cystitis is caused by non-specific microorganisms, that is, it does not have a specific pathogen. Therefore, inflammation cannot be transmitted to a man through sexual contact with a sick woman. The likelihood of infection of the bladder occurs if the disease is caused by sexually transmitted infections:

But in this case, it is cystitis that does not necessarily occur.

To avoid infection, men should abandon intimacy with women with any urogenital infections.

Symptoms in acute and chronic form

Rapid and uncomfortable urination are the first symptoms of inflammation of the urea in men. The severity of the clinical picture depends on the form of pathology. Symptoms of acute male cystitis are pronounced, they suddenly appear several days after infection of the genitourinary system.

Typical signs of cystitis in men:

  • soreness of the suprapubic zone,
  • frequent urination
  • burning in the penis
  • urge to the toilet at night,
  • blood, mucus in the urine.

If cystitis is caused by an infection, men complain of fever, general weakness, fever, and discomfort when urinating.

The symptomatic picture with sluggish cystitis is poor. Men feel satisfactory, therefore disability decreases slightly.

If the disease becomes sluggish, the severity of symptoms decreases. Urologists distinguish such signs of bladder inflammation:

  • discomfort when urinating,
  • small amounts of urine
  • clouding of urine.

In relapses, the symptoms of sluggish cystitis do not differ from those in acute inflammation of the urea.

What is needed for diagnosis

At the initial examination, the urologist examines and palpates the genitals, probes the prostate through the rectum. To identify an infection in the urogenital tract, a urine test for microflora is performed. To determine the causative agent of the disease, men are prescribed:

  • PCR test for urogenital infections,
  • inoculation of a smear from the urethra,
  • clinical blood test.

Ultrasound of the bladder is difficult due to frequent urination. Therefore, an ultrasound examination of the prostate and kidneys is performed with the determination of the residual amount of urine. To detect a blockage in the urinary duct, men undergo uroflowmetry - recording the speed of urination.

Treatment of inflammation of the bladder in men

Based on the results of the examination, the urologist determines how to treat cystitis in a man. To eliminate lesions in the genitourinary system, different methods are used:

  • drug therapy
  • diet,
  • physiotherapeutic procedures
  • surgical intervention.

The choice of treatment depends on the form of cystitis, the presence of concomitant complications.

Preparations

Antibiotics for cystitis are needed to destroy pathogenic bacteria. With the microbial flora, drugs from the group effectively cope:

  • fluoroquinolones - Geoflox, Oflo, Zanocin,
  • cephalosporins - Sefotak, Cefotaxime, Fagotsef,
  • nitrofurans - Solafur, Furadonin, Furagin.

Plant uroseptic is an effective cure for cystitis in men, which does not create stress on the kidneys or liver. For the speedy destruction of the infection, Uroprofit or Kanefron are prescribed. A quick recovery is possible with strengthening immunity. Therefore, the treatment regimen includes immunostimulants - Biostim-T, Immunal, Lysozyme.

Nutrition

To cure cystitis and avoid relapse, men should adhere to a dairy-vegetable diet. From the diet exclude pickles, spices, alcohol, as well as sour fruits. To normalize the pH level of urine, these products are used:

  • homemade yogurt
  • low-fat kefir,
  • sweet vegetables
  • alkaline mineral water
  • vegetable juices
  • low-fat cottage cheese.

Diets are followed throughout the treatment period.

Folk remedies

Urinary inflammation in men is treated with herbal preparations:

  • Collection number 1. Melissa, calamus root, elderberry and bearberry are mixed in equal amounts. For 1 liter of water, take 6 tbsp. l raw materials. Boil for 15 minutes and insist for at least 7 hours. Drink 150 ml in the form of heat up to 4 times a day.
  • Collection number 2. Parsley is mixed with oregano, mint, eucalyptus and St. John's wort in equal proportions. 2 tbsp. l collecting boil in ½ liter of water over low heat for 10 minutes. Take 50 ml up to 6 times a day.
In chronic cystitis, it is recommended to take decoctions for 8-12 months.

How long is inflammation treated?

Acute cystitis of a bacterial nature is treated with antibiotics for no more than 5-7 days. With chronic inflammation, the duration of the course is 1-3 months. If complications arise, therapy is carried out in a hospital setting.

With wrinkled urea, surgical plastic surgery is performed with the replacement of the damaged area with the intestine. The rehabilitation period takes from 3-4 weeks to several months. To accelerate the healing of the bladder, physiotherapy is prescribed - inductothermy, UHF, magnetotherapy.

Possible complications

Inflammation of the urea against the background of prostatitis, urethritis and other urological diseases is fraught with complications. In half of cases, sluggish cystitis leads to a decrease in fertility and infertility.

The likely consequences of cystitis in men:

  • sclerotic changes in the lesions,
  • violation of erectile function,
  • paracystitis (inflammation of the fatty tissue around the urinary tract),
  • reduction in bubble volume,
  • pyelonephritis.

With an infectious lesion of the urinary organs, the risk of bacteria entering the systemic circulation increases, which leads to sepsis - blood poisoning.

Prevention of cystitis in men

To prevent cystitis, you should:

  • comply with hygiene rules,
  • Avoid hypothermia
  • timely treat urogenital infections,
  • give up sex with casual partners,
  • exclude smoking and alcohol,
  • to live an active lifestyle.
Men with sluggish pyelonephritis, urethritis and other diseases of the urogenital sphere should be examined by a doctor twice a year.

Subject to medical advice, the likelihood of inflammation of the urea is reduced several times. Timely diagnosis and therapy of the disease prevents life-threatening complications.

Causes of cystitis in men

Doctors distinguish two main forms of this disease in men - acute and chronic. The clinical picture is pronounced in the acute form, and chronic cystitis can occur for years with little or no symptoms.

Factors that can cause the disease:

  • allergic reactions
  • infections of the ureters and kidneys,
  • entry of mycobacterium tuberculosis into the bladder,
  • chronic foci of infection in the body,
  • sepsis,
  • genital infections
  • prostatitis and urethritis,
  • exposure to radiation.

Hypothermia of the body is the main factor in the development of cystitis in men. Often this pathology is encountered by men suffering from cancer or prostate adenoma.

The causative agent of acute cystitis is Proteus. Pathology can also occur under the influence of Escherichia coli, cocci and other infections.

Symptoms and first signs of cystitis

Consider the symptoms characteristic of acute cystitis:

  • frequent urination,
  • poor urine output
  • false urge to urinate
  • urination is observed at night,
  • urine becomes cloudy, an unpleasant odor appears. Impurities of pus and blood appear in urine,
  • occasional urinary incontinence
  • difficulty urinating, you have to make an effort,
  • severe pain brings the beginning and end of urination,
  • pain occurs in the penis, groin and pubis,
  • Signs of general intoxication: fever, increased sweating, chills, headache, weakness, decreased performance, pain in the joints and muscles.

The chronic form, in comparison with the acute, is characterized by the appearance of less pronounced clinical symptoms. For chronic cystitis, the following is characteristic:

  • mild soreness,
  • minor urination disorders,
  • normal general health.

Chronic cystitis is of three types:

  • asymptomatic
  • persistent
  • interstitial.

The latent form is not accompanied by symptoms at all, and it can be detected by changes in the analysis of urine. Latent cystitis is characterized by rare periods of exacerbation. Persistent cystitis worsens several times a year.

But if we are talking about interstitial cystitis, then it is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination of a constant nature,
  • persistent and persistent pain in the suprapubic zone,
  • depression, irritability, anxiety.

The most serious complication of cystitis is the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux. The essence of this pathological process is the throwing of urine from the bladder back into the ureters. In addition, the infectious process can spread along the ascending path, leading to the appearance of pyelonephritis. And inflammation of the sphincter of the bladder causes acute urinary retention.

How to treat cystitis in men at home

In order to prevent inflammation of the bladder, the prevention of cystitis in men is important. If you still could not protect yourself and the first signs of the disease appeared, then you need to visit a specialist soon. Therapy is prescribed only after the urologist collects a complete medical history and conducts an examination. Acute cystitis, accompanied by severe pain and persistent urinary retention, will require in-patient treatment and a detailed study of the processes occurring in the body to determine the type of pathogen.

The following medications and procedures are recommended as a general treatment regimen for cystitis in men at home:

  1. Antibiotics. After identifying the type of bacteria that have settled on the tissues of the bladder, antibiotics are prescribed. It is important to choose the right active substance that can fight against multiplying microbes and this should be done exclusively by a specialist.
  2. Bed rest during the acute period of the disease, the use of antipyretics, the consumption of a large amount of fluid (up to 2.5 liters per day), dieting in the absence of acidic, acute and salty in the diet.
  3. Painkillers. Antispasmodics are used, as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
  4. Treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. Often it is such infections that cause the development of cystitis in men. If you do not stop their development, then measures to combat inflammation of the bladder will be useless. For each STI, there is a specific treatment regimen that the doctor chooses.
  5. Herbal medicine. Diuretic and anti-inflammatory herbal remedies are effective against cystitis. Herbal teas (bearberry, horsetail, lingonberry leaf) will be useful in this disease. Such drugs as Kanefron, Cyston and Fitolizin, have a supportive effect, help relieve inflammation. Keep in mind the possibility of an allergic reaction to herbs. Cranberry juice or fruit drink will be useful, Monurel tablets containing cranberry extract are effective. Such drugs reduce the concentration of the antibiotic, so you can use them at the end of the course of treatment.
  6. Washing the bladder. The procedure is carried out using special solutions of antiseptic action.
  7. Physiotherapy. At the end of the acute period of the disease, in order to accelerate the recovery of the body and resorption, ultrasound procedures, UHF, mud therapy, magnetolaser therapy, electrophoresis are used.

The treatment of cystitis in men in each case is selected according to a certain scheme based on the causes of inflammation, concomitant diseases, and the general condition of the patient's body.

Symptoms of cystitis in men

Symptoms of cystitis in men appear quite rarely. To the question is cystitis in men many patients respond negatively because they have not yet encountered cystitis. Often patients confuse cystitis with signs of sexually transmitted diseases and rush to the appropriate specialist. Nevertheless, cystitis affects both women and men, although in the latter the symptoms of the disease do not really occur so often.

Cystitis in men, the classic symptoms are frequent urges to urinate, which cannot be restrained and patients rush to the toilet. However, the process does not always end successfully - men cannot urinate, although the urges remain.

All this time, the condition of the patients is accompanied by uncomfortable sensations, and if the causes of cystitis in men are associated with calculi, then the pain can be extremely severe. The volume of urine excreted in cystitis is also reduced, and incontinence is possible at night. Urine contains purulent impurities, the number of leukocytes is increased, hematuria is visually or microscopically observed.

In addition to these signs, there may be additional symptoms, manifested in all to varying degrees:

  • weakness and dizziness,
  • the patient becomes less active
  • disability falls
  • there are signs of fever - chills and fever.

These symptoms may not occur in some patients if the inflammation is not so widespread. But in most cases, signs of cystitis in men are accompanied by burning and cutting. Patients complain of pain in the penis, especially when lying down, when there is discomfort also in the scrotum and pubic area.

Cystitis in men acute and chronic in nature.

Acute cystitis in men provokes sudden pain and pain when urinating. It hurts in the lower abdomen and along the urethra. After attempts to urinate, a small amount of urine is released in patients, which indicates irritation of the sphincter. Urine with acute cystitis has an unpleasant odor; its color changes from dull yellow to dirty green, depending on the amount of pus. Blood streaks may be detected. Symptoms of acute cystitis in men can disappear or significantly weaken if the disease has passed into the chronic stage.

Symptoms of chronic cystitis in men are not so pronounced. That is why this form of the disease poses a great danger to patients. In chronic cystitis, severe pain and pain are absent. The sensations of cystitis in men practically do not reveal any disease, but aching discomfort in the lower abdomen persists, and blood may appear in the urine from time to time.

Hemorrhagic cystitis in men indicates the destruction of the walls of the bladder and the violation of the integrity of blood vessels. The temperature with chronic cystitis can be normal, or slightly elevated. Chronic cystitis in men threatens the development of concomitant diseases of the genitourinary sphere.

Treatment of cystitis in men

At cystitis treatment in men, it is necessary to strictly follow the doctor's recommendations. This will significantly reduce the patient’s recovery time. When contacting the clinic, the doctor focuses on the following points:

  • the need for compliance with cystitis,
  • diet food
  • taking anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs,
  • a reasonable combination of alternative treatment methods,
  • if necessary, physiotherapy measures.

Before starting the treatment of the disease, it is necessary to pass a urine test for bacterial seeding and isolate the pathogen that provoked inflammation of the bladder. After the available results, it is much easier to select antibiotics for cystitis in men, because the drug should give the maximum effect in therapy.

The diet for cystitis in men is also important - in order not to provoke irritation of the bladder, many products are forbidden to patients, therefore, the correct diet should be strictly adhered to.

As for the treatment regimen for the disease, treatment of cystitis in men at home is possible - at home you need to adhere to bed rest. Treatment of cystitis in men in a hospital setting may be needed when:

  • severe intoxication,
  • the perforation of the bubble
  • the appearance of complications.

During treatment, sexual abstinence is a prerequisite, as there is a risk of infecting a sexual partner and worsening one's own state of health.

To remove the signs of intoxication and to establish the evacuation of pathogenic microorganisms, you need to use more fluid. Drinking with cystitis you need at least two liters of water, and if swelling does not appear, bring the daily fluid intake to 2.5 liters. You can drink clean water, tea, herbal decoctions and infusions. Mineral waters, for example, Essentuki-4, will be especially useful.

The consequences of cystitis can be serious if the disease is not completely cured - this includes urinary incontinence, damage to the muscle layer of the bladder, and deterioration of sexual function. After treatment, the prevention of cystitis in men is important, as the infection can be re-activated and the disease will recur. Men are given sick leave for the duration of the treatment of the disease.

Why do men rarely get cystitis?

In men, cystitis is relatively rare due to the special structure of the lower parts of the urinary system: they have a long and convoluted urethra, which in most cases prevents the infection from penetrating directly into the bladder.

Under normal conditions, even if the infection enters the urethra, it is partially washed out by a stream of urine, and the rest is destroyed by the cells of the immune system before the infection reaches the bladder.

In men, cystitis in most cases occurs when immunity decreases, congestion in the bladder occurs or pathogens infect it in large numbers.

Why does cystitis appear?

We distinguish the main causative agents of bladder inflammation:

  • E. coli
  • yeast-like fungi
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • staphylococcus

The disease can affect a man at absolutely any age, even in childhood and adolescence. One of the common reasons this can happen is because personal hygiene is not properly followed. Proper observance of intimate hygiene rules is the basis of preventive measures.

Why do men have cystitis? Sometimes the disease develops against the background of prostatitis or prostate adenoma. In some cases, disorders of the genitourinary system become provocateurs of the pathological process in the bladder.

Urolithiasis, urethral structure, chronic genital infections - all this can serve as an impetus to the development of the pathological process. Symptoms of cystitis can occur in men after prolonged exposure to cold.

Consider other causes of cystitis in men:

  • taking hormones
  • pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of the kidneys,
  • infectious and viral diseases. In this case, pathogens are introduced into the bladder by the hematogenous route,
  • infection by catheterization or cystoscopy,
  • abdominal injuries
  • diabetes,
  • constant stressful situations.

Causes of cystitis in men

Acute or chronic cystitis in a man most often develops as a result of the action of the following factors:

  • radiation
  • allergies
  • infectious diseases of the kidneys, ureters,
  • the presence of genital infections
  • immunodeficiencies, as well as a general decrease in immunity due to the presence of another disease - for example, diabetes mellitus or with blood diseases,
  • penetration into the bladder through lymph, blood or with the flow of urine of mycobacterium tuberculosis or other bacteria, protozoa, viruses,
  • prolonged hypothermia,
  • sepsis
  • prostatitis, urethritis,
  • adenomas and prostate cancer,
  • urine backflow, when it begins to move turbulently in the urethra,
  • traumatic injuries of the bladder, including during catheterization and other medical procedures,
  • fistulas between the rectum and the bladder, etc.

The most typical causative agents of cystitis:

  • Proteus,
  • E. coli
  • pathogens of urogenital infections,
  • cocci.

Chronic cystitis in men

The chronic form, in comparison with the acute, is characterized by the appearance of less pronounced clinical symptoms. For chronic cystitis, the following is characteristic:

  • mild soreness,
  • minor urination disorders,
  • normal general health.

Chronic cystitis is of three types:

  • asymptomatic
  • persistent
  • interstitial.

The latent form is not accompanied by symptoms at all, and it can be detected by changes in the analysis of urine. Latent cystitis is characterized by rare periods of exacerbation. Persistent cystitis worsens several times a year.

But if we are talking about interstitial cystitis, then it is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • frequent urination of a constant nature,
  • persistent and persistent pain in the suprapubic zone,
  • depression, irritability, anxiety.

WHAT DO THE DOCTOR'S SAY?

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation and Honorary Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Anton Vasiliev:

“I have been treating diseases of the genitourinary system for many years. According to statistics from the Ministry of Health, cystitis in 60% of cases becomes chronic.

The main mistake is tightening! The sooner you begin treatment for cystitis, the better. There is a tool that is recommended for self-treatment and prevention of cystitis at home, since many patients do not seek help because of a lack of time or shame. This is Ureferon. It is the most versatile. It has no synthetic components, its effect is soft, but palpable after the first day of administration. It relieves inflammation, strengthens the walls of the bladder, its mucosa, restores general immunity. It suits both women and men. For men, there will also be a pleasant bonus - increased potency. "

The most serious complication of cystitis is the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux. The essence of this pathological process is the throwing of urine from the bladder back into the ureters. In addition, the infectious process can spread along the ascending path, leading to the appearance of pyelonephritis. And inflammation of the sphincter of the bladder causes acute urinary retention.

Rarely encountered forms of cystitis

The rare forms of cystitis include:

  • cystitis with urogenital schistosomiasis (bilharziosis),
  • actinomycosis (damage to the bladder with an appropriate fungus),
  • malacoplakia - the appearance of many plaques and growths on the mucous membrane of the bladder (and some other organs), accompanied by inflammatory reactions,
  • cystitis that occurs with purpura.

Acute cystitis

The most characteristic symptoms of acute cystitis:

  • painfully
  • difficult
  • with frequent and false desires
  • observed at night.

  • with blood (terminal hematuria),
  • with pus (leukocyturia),
  • muddy
  • sometimes with an unpleasant odor.

3. Other symptoms:

  • temperature rise,
  • general weakness
  • decreased performance
  • soreness in the suprapubic region, as well as in the penis, groin, scrotum,
  • urinary incontinence (with cervical form and trigonitis),
  • burning in the urethra,
  • muscle and joint pain caused by high fever.

Urologist examination

Preliminary diagnosis is based on patient complaints, as well as data from a urological examination, including examination and palpation of the external genital organs and a digital examination of the prostate through the wall of the rectum. Already at this stage, it becomes clear whether cystitis is associated with the presence of adenoma, prostatitis, orchoepididymitis or not.

After that, the doctor will prescribe an additional laboratory and instrumental examination, which allows to identify the pathogen and clarify the nature of the inflammation.

Laboratory research

1. Urinalysis. For cystitis, the following changes in urine are characteristic:

  • increase in white blood cells (leukocyturia),
  • the presence of blood (hematuria),
  • in some cases, mucus, desquamated epithelial cells, bacteria, protozoa.

2. Complete blood count. The blood picture will reflect the severity of the course of cystitis and some of its features (for example, an increase in eosinophils with allergic cystitis, an increase in ESR, leukocytosis in the event of a fever).

3. Bacteriological culture of the contents of the urethra and urine. With the help of this study, the causative agent of cystitis is detected and its sensitivity to antibiotics is determined.

4. PCR-study. It is prescribed for suspected genital infections. Scraping is done for the same purpose.

A more comprehensive and in-depth study may include an immunogram, a biochemical blood test (urea, creatinine, electrolyte composition), the level of prostate-specific antigen, etc.

Instrumental research

To clarify the cause of cystitis, men are prescribed:

  • uroflowmetry,
  • comprehensive urodynamic examination,
  • cystoscopy,
  • Ultrasound of the prostate, kidney,
  • cystography.

Ultrasound of the bladder during an exacerbation of chronic or acute cystitis is not performed due to the impossibility of maximum urine filling of this organ during this period.

Features of the treatment of certain forms of cystitis

  1. Tuberculous cystitis. In addition to anti-TB drugs, instillations of sterile fish oil, saluside, PASK are prescribed.
  2. Radiation cystitis. Local treatment is supplemented by instillations of healing stimulants. If large areas of the mucosa are affected, plastic surgery is performed.
  3. Interstitial cystitis. Among other things, treatment is supplemented by the appointment of instillations of hormonal drugs, antibacterial and painkillers. Inside, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drugs can be prescribed.

Phytotherapy

Charges are widely used for the treatment of cystitis, which may include the following plants: calamus root, St. John's wort, lemon balm, kidney tea, knotweed, bearberry, fennel, nettle, chamomile, wild rosemary, field horsetail, corn stigmas, birch buds, flax, oregano, eucalyptus and some others.

The course of treatment of chronic cystitis is up to 1.5 years, alternating phyto-harvesting with each other every 2 months.

Complications of Cystitis

The most serious complications of cystitis are the occurrence of vesicoureteral reflux (when urine is thrown back from the bladder back into the ureters) and pyelonephritis. Severe forms of cystitis (for example, gangrenous) can lead to the appearance of fistulas and inflammation of the near-bubble tissue. Inflammation in the area of ​​sphincters of the bladder is sometimes accompanied by acute urinary retention.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that cystitis is relatively rare in men, it must be remembered that after 40 years the situation may change due to the occurrence of prostatitis, prostate adenoma or prostate cancer.

Due to the fact that cystitis can be completely asymptomatic for a long time, it is necessary to regularly undergo professional examinations, including taking a general urine test.

In most cases, in the early stages, cystitis can be treated well and can be defeated.

General information

The prevalence of cystitis among men is much lower than among women. In practical urology, cystitis is diagnosed in 0.5% of men, mostly older than 40 years. The low incidence is due to the characteristics of the male urethra: a long, narrow, curved urethra in most cases delays the infection and prevents its entry into the bladder. The development of cystitis in men is more often caused by infravesical obstruction - subbubble compression of the urinary tract (at the level of the urethra or neck of the bladder), which prevents the free outflow of urine.

Cystitis: what is it in men

Cystitis is an inflammatory disease consisting in irritation and damage to the walls of the bladder. In fact, women often suffer from cystitis. About 2-3 out of 10 women at least once in their life suffer from this disease. In males, only 1% have cystitis in any form. In most cases, these are men over 45 years old. The difference in the frequency of diseases between the sexes is due to physiological differences in the structure of their urogenital organs. First of all, men have a very long and sinuous urethra. But the walls of the urethra are an extremely difficult obstacle for pathogenic microorganisms, since immune cells are active in them. In addition, in the male body, the opening of the urethra is very far from the anus, so pathogenic microflora from the anus is practically excluded from entering the canal.

However, infection can enter the bladder not only from the outside through the urethra. In some cases, cystitis in men is a consequence of kidney or prostate diseases.

Generally speaking, cystitis does not always have an infectious nature. However, if we are talking about infectious cystitis, then most often it is bacterial cystitis, less often fungal. Even less commonly, cystitis is caused by multicellular parasites.

Most often, infectious cystitis occurs as a result of the action of E. coli (80%). The causative agents of the disease can also be:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • staphylococcus
  • Proteus,
  • gonococcus
  • chlamydia
  • Trichomonas
  • mycoplasmas.

Cystitis can be a complication of tuberculosis

Infectious cystitis caused by trichomonads, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, gonococci, Koch sticks is called specific. A non-specific cystitis is a disease caused by opportunistic bacteria that constantly live in the body.

Infrequent varieties of cystitis are those that are caused by purpura, actinomycosis, and schistosomiasis.

The path by which pathogens enter the bladder can be different. Depending on it, cystitis is divided into descending, ascending, lymphogenous and hematogenous. The upward variant of infection (from the urethra) in male patients is quite rare. Cystitis in men is most often descending (in case of kidney infection), as well as hematogenous and lymphogenous.

There are also non-infectious cystitis. They can be caused by:

  • operations or diagnostic procedures on the bladder,
  • radiation exposure to the body, for example, during radiation therapy of the prostate gland,
  • injuries of the bladder by foreign bodies, such as stones,
  • chemicals excreted in the urine and causing irritation of the mucous membrane of the bladder.

Also, cystitis is divided into primary and secondary. In the first case, the disease begins on its own, directly in the bladder. In the second - cystitis is caused by some other pathological processes in the body.

Secondary cystitis, in turn, is divided into cystitis of intravesical and extravesical origin. For example, stones in the bladder and neoplasms of this organ are intravesical causes, and diseases of other organs (prostate adenoma, pyelonephritis) are extravesical.

If the area of ​​inflammation is the bladder triangle, then such cystitis is called trigonitis. Also, depending on the location of the inflammation, cervical and diffuse cystitis are isolated. With cervical cystitis, only inflammation is observed on the neck of the bladder. The diffuse form of the disease manifests itself in inflammation of the entire organ wall.

Depending on how badly the bladder wall is affected, the following forms of cystitis are distinguished:

  • catarrhal
  • hemorrhagic
  • cystic
  • ulcerative
  • phlegmonous
  • gangrenous.

The easiest form, affecting only the surface layers of the walls, is catarrhal. With a gangrenous form, the pathological process leads to necrotization of the walls. To determine the degree of the disease, cystoscopy is used followed by a biopsy.

Factors contributing to the appearance of cystitis in men:

  • body hypothermia,
  • decreased immunity,
  • stress
  • deliberate urinary retention, rare emptying of the bladder,
  • kidney disease, prostate,
  • non-observance of personal hygiene rules,
  • diseases accompanied by the occurrence of foci of infection (tonsillitis, sinusitis, furunculosis, dental diseases, etc.),
  • spinal injuries
  • diabetes,
  • alcohol abuse.

Complications of cystitis can be paracystitis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the bladder), pyelonephritis, sclerosis of the walls of the bladder, perforation of the walls of the bladder, inflammation of the kidneys (as a result of vesicoureteral reflux).

Monural Antibiotic Treatment

To quickly cope with cystitis, a single dose of a powerful antibacterial agent - Fosfomycin trometamol (trade name - Monural).

It is considered a first-line drug. The main causative agent of the disease has the highest susceptibility to this medicine. 1 dose (3 g) creates in the urine a concentration high enough for the complete destruction of bacteria for 80 hours. Fosfomycin is one of the safest drugs, although with caution, it is prescribed to expectant mothers and women during lactation.

Important: it should be noted that in our country Monural has been used for 10 years, therefore, the formation of resistance to it of Escherichia coli strains is possible. Cases have already been recorded when patients who have taken this drug once go to the doctor again. Increasingly, not 1, but 2 doses of the drug are prescribed, which must be taken with a difference of 24 hours.

Medications for the treatment of male cystitis

Drug therapy can be etiotropic, or symptomatic. Etiotropic therapy is aimed at counteracting pathogens - pathogens. The goal of symptomatic treatment is to relieve unpleasant symptoms - pain and spasm.

If the cause of the disease is a bacterial infection, then a course of taking antibiotics is necessary. The most commonly used drugs are fluoroquinolones (such as lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin), nitrofurans, cephalosporins, and less commonly, penicillins.The duration of admission is usually a week.

Before choosing an antibiotic regimen, it is necessary to conduct a study on the type of pathogen and its resistance to antibiotics.

Often, drugs with herbal anti-inflammatory and antibacterial components are also used, such as Kanefron, Fitolizin, Monurel, Urokam, Uroflux, Urolesan, Cyston, bearberry grass, decoction of horsetail and St. John's wort.

Another class of drugs used for the disease is antispasmodics (papaverine, drotaverine), which help relieve spasms and the pain syndrome caused by it. NSAIDs are also used to reduce the symptoms of pain and inflammation. For severe pain, novocaine blockades are used. It is also recommended to take vitamins - to increase the body's resistance to infection.

Types of medicines used for cystitis

A typeAppointmentExamples
AntibioticsFighting a bacterial infectionciprofloxacin, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, tetracycline
Herbal preparationsThe fight against inflammation, antiseptic effectMonurel, Canefron
Antispasmodicsreduction in pain and crampingdrotaverine
NSAIDsfight against pain and inflammationIbuprofen

Signs of the disease

The first signs of cystitis in men can be detected independently, for this disease is characteristic:

Treatment of cystitis with antibiotics does not need to be postponed, as this is fraught with consequences and can lead to complications in the form of inflammation of the fiber near the bladder, cause a decrease in the size of the bladder itself, urinary incontinence and pyelonephritis.

Forecast and Prevention

With the timely start of treatment, the prognosis for acute cystitis is favorable. In chronic inflammation, there is a risk of relapse. Observance of intimate hygiene, prevention of STDs, exclusion of stress factors and hypothermia, timely treatment of diseases of the male genital area, pyelonephritis, and sanitation of purulent foci allow preventing the development of the disease. When performing endovascular studies and manipulations, careful observance of asepsis, advance antibiotic prophylaxis is necessary.

Antibiotics

The main drug is an antibiotic, because in most cases, cystitis is caused precisely by the bacterial flora. The groups of antibiotics that penetrate the mucous membrane of the bladder are fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins.

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics:

  • lomefloxacin,
  • gatifloxacin,
  • ofloxacin
  • ciprofloxacin.

Herbal medicines:

It is also important to follow a diet that will prevent the aggressive environment of urine.

Alternative treatment of cystitis in men

Alternative methods are used with the permission of a doctor. Self-medication will seriously harm your health. Alternative treatment is more likely an auxiliary therapy, it will help relieve unpleasant symptoms, but it does not affect the cause of cystitis.

We highlight the most popular methods of treating inflammation of the bladder:

  • You will need such ingredients: St. John's wort, knotweed, parsley, dill, thyme. All these components are taken in equal proportions and thoroughly mixed. Half a liter of boiling water is enough for one tablespoon of herbal harvest. After the remedy is infused, it is filtered and drunk during the day for three days,
  • take such components: bear ears, corn stigmas, St. John's wort. The preparation is prepared in the same way, only it is enough to consume two tablespoons three times a day. The treatment is carried out no more than one week,
  • one more recipe for preparing a decoction for oral administration, only in this case you will need such ingredients: meadowsweet, lingonberry leaves, dogrose, eucalyptus, St. John's wort, echinacea. Use filtered broth for three times,
  • to achieve a diuretic effect, you will need the following: a glass of water, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar and honey. You should use the drug on an empty stomach for a month,
  • to warm the bladder, a compress is made on the abdomen. To do this, you need to take: calendula, onion husk, crushed potatoes or chamomile. The compress is applied down the abdomen in a warm form.

Treatment of cystitis at home

In order to cure cystitis at home, complex measures will be required. It should be prepared for the fact that the acute process is treated much more painfully than the chronic one. Consider a phased cure for cystitis at home:

  1. Bed rest, diet and heavy drinking.
  2. Drug treatment. This primarily includes the fight against etiological factors.
  3. Thermal treatments. The bathtubs are made on the basis of chamomile or St. John's wort. For one liter of water, several tablespoons of grass are enough.

At home, herbs based drugs can be used to combat cystitis:

  • Kanefron. The composition of the drug includes centaury, lovage, rosemary leaves. The tool has pronounced antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and vasodilating properties. Kanefron is available in various dosage forms: drops, dragees, tablets. The drug is prescribed with caution to allergy sufferers,
  • Monurel. The composition of the product includes ascorbic acid and cranberry. Monurel increases the body's resistance to infections and inhibits the reproduction of E. coli. Monurel is often part of the treatment of recurrent cystitis,
  • Cyston. This is a multicomponent preparation, which includes a number of components: extract of bicardium, saxifrage, madder, syt, strawflower, mummy powder. Cyston is prescribed two tablets three times a day for three months.

Despite the fact that cystitis is rare in men, insufficient adherence to intimate hygiene can easily lead to an inflammatory process. Sometimes even chronic stress or hypothermia can serve as a trigger for pathology.

Due to the fact that sometimes cystitis is asymptomatic, preventive examinations are of great importance. An early visit to a doctor is the key to your health, in the early stages of the disease amenable to treatment and it is easy to defeat!

Watch the video: Urinary Tract Infection - Overview signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment (February 2020).

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