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Who is a nihilist definition

The word nihilism is familiar to many people, but only a few know its true designation. Translated literally, nihilists are “nothing” from the Latin language. Hence one can understand who such nihilists are, that is, people in a certain subculture and current who deny norms, ideals and generally accepted norms. Such people can often be found in a crowd or among creative personalities with innovative thinking.

Nihilists are ubiquitous, in numerous literary publications and sources of information they are spoken of as a complete denial, especially mental attitude and social and moral phenomenon. But historians say that for each era and time period, nihilists and the concept of nihilism denoted slightly different currents and concepts. Few people know, for example, that Nietzsche was a nihilist, as well as a large number of famous writers.

Nihilism

Nihilism (from lat. nihil - nothing) - a philosophy that calls into question (in its extreme form absolutely denying) generally accepted values, ideals, norms of morality, culture. Nihilism in the general sense implies denial, a negative attitude towards certain or even all aspects of social life. In the dictionaries it is also defined as “negation”, “absolute negation”, “social and moral phenomenon”, “mentality”, that is, obviously, the definition of nihilism and its manifestation at different times depended on the cultural-historical era, subjectively and contextually.

Nihilists, who is this?

The word nihilism comes from the Latin language, where nihil is translated as "nothing." It follows that a nihilist is a person who is in the stage of completely denying concepts, norms and traditions imposed by society, and besides, he may show a negative attitude towards some and even all aspects of public life. Each cultural-historical era implied a special manifestation of nihilism.

History of the term

In the Middle Ages, there was a doctrine nihilism, anathematized by pope Alexander III in 1179. The doctrine of nihilism, falsely attributed to the scholastic Peter Lombard, rejected the human nature of Christ.

In Western philosophical thought, the term "nihilism" (German: Nihilismus) was introduced by the German writer and philosopher F. G. Jacobi. This concept was used by many philosophers. S. Kierkegaard considered the crisis of Christianity and the spread of an “aesthetic” attitude to be a source of nihilism. F. Nietzsche understood nihilism as a recognition of the illusory nature and inconsistency of both the Christian idea of ​​the supramundane God (“God died”) and the idea of ​​progress, which he considered a version of religious faith. O. Spengler called nihilism a feature of modern European culture, experiencing a period of “sunset” and “senile forms of consciousness,” which supposedly inevitably followed a state of higher prosperity in the cultures of other peoples. M. Heidegger regarded nihilism as a major movement in the history of the West, which could lead to a global catastrophe.

Nihilists adhere to some or all of the following statements:

  • There is no (indisputable) reasonable evidence of the existence of a supreme ruler or creator,
  • Objective morality does not exist,
  • Life, in a certain sense, has no truth, and no action is objectively preferable to any other.

Demonstrative nihilism (youthful, teenage)

The psychological syndrome of demonstrative nihilism occurs in adolescence, however, due to the peculiarities of personality development, its signs can manifest themselves in more mature years.

Demonstrative nihilism involves the cultivation of originality and originality, the purposeful creation of an image “not like everyone else”, the blind denial of all norms and standards of behavior, thinking. A demonstrative nihilist is poorly oriented in his own way, he does not know his own characteristics at all, but he knows that he always needs to go as opposed to society. In this case, nihilism can hardly be called the worldview and philosophy of the individual. This is a deviation in behavior, a violation of socialization and self-identification.

A demonstrative nihilist openly and implicitly engages in controversy and controversy. Most often, the nihilist presents himself in a negative way, disputes from the everyday level go to the level of ideas, culture, values.

Each movement, deed, element of clothing, the word of the nihilist is pointedly opposed to others. The behavior is not only demonstrative, but also extravagant. Often extravagance borders on asociality. Those around, in turn, fix attention only on these aspects of the personality, which further consolidates the image of “not like everyone else”, a provocative, shocking person, demonstrated by him in the nihilist’s self-consciousness.

Without correction, the help of a psychologist, this behavior turns into crime, alcohol addiction, sexual licentiousness, etc. Each time it will become more difficult for a person to shock, the boundaries between social and asocial behavior will be blurred more and more.

Nihilist and nihilism - meaning

The lexical meaning of the word "nihilist" implies a certain person who is a supporter of radical democratic reasoning and expresses his rejection of generally accepted laws, rules and traditions.

In modern society, the meaning of the word nihilist has acquired a deeper and broader meaning. But the views and beliefs of such people, as well as before, have not changed. Nihilists of the 21st century also adhere to worldviews that allow to question the rules and standards of society, as well as deny any ideals, moral and ethical norms and regular forms of social existence.

The direction within which they adhere to nihilistic principles has acquired the name nihilism. This movement characterizes the way of thinking, and life implies the rejection of everything. A more specific meaning and its manifestation in a given situation depends on specific circumstances and time frames.

In most sources, nihilists are characterized as negative and negative personalities. According to the majority, these individuals are constantly in a state of protest and rebellion, who are not satisfied with the established rules and laws of society. Supporters of nihilism are found in many areas of society. Each participant in the movement denies a convenient direction: politics, culture, religion.

The first mention of nihilism appeared in the Middle Ages by Alexander III. German philosopher F.G. Jacobi also used the term nihilism.

It is also known that Nietzsche was a nihilist. He adhered to a statement based on the denial of God and the failure of Christianity as a religion.

A nihilist, if he is logical, doubts the existence of his interlocutor and is not sure of his own existence.
Victor Hugo. Outcasts

Traditional nihilism is the basis for the emergence of deeper and newer types of this trend. Participants in the nihilistic movement are not always unanimous in their reasoning and conclusions. Even more controversy arises between society and representatives of nihilism. Ordinary members of society cannot understand the nihilists and their beliefs.

It is even more difficult to understand a nihilist who does not accept any interactions and does not believe in anything. It is difficult for nihilists to understand a society that idealizes and gives meaning to things without good reason. They are trying to prove with their protest that the existence of the world does not depend on people and their ideals.The world and the universe functions separately from everything and does not need cultivation and worship.

Thus, nihilism is characterized by a worldview that is based on progress and rationality.

The course of public thought

In Russia, this trend gained maximum distribution after the light saw the novel by I.S. Turgenev "Fathers and Sons." Nihilism has shown itself to be the public mood of members of the community who have denied established moral standards. These people refuted everything that was familiar. Accordingly, a nihilist is a person who does not recognize anything. Representatives of this trend rejected religious prejudice, despotism in society, art, literature. The nihilists advocated for the freedom of the woman’s personality, her equality in society, and also to some extent promoted selfishness. The program of this trend was very sketchy, and those who promoted it were too straightforward.

If we talk about nihilism as a worldview, then it can not be called whole. A nihilist is a person who was distinguished only by an expression of rejection of the surrounding reality. The ideas of this social movement at that time were expressed by the Russian Word magazine.

Varieties of nihilism

  • A philosophical worldview position that calls into question (in its extreme form absolutely denying) generally accepted values, ideals, norms of morality, culture,
  • Meriological nihilism is a philosophical position according to which objects consisting of parts do not exist,
  • Metaphysical nihilism is a philosophical theory according to which the existence of objects in reality is not necessary,
  • Epistemological nihilism - the denial of knowledge,
  • Moral nihilism is a metaethical idea that nothing is moral or immoral,
  • Legal nihilism is the active or passive negation of the obligations of the individual generated by the social environment, as well as the norms and rules established by the state.

History of occurrence

For the first time, people came across such a trend of culture as nihilism back in the Middle Ages, then nihilism was presented as a special doctrine. His first representative was Pope Alexander III in 1179. There is also a false version of the doctrine of nihilism, which was attributed to the scholastic Peter, this semblance of a subculture denied the human nature of Christ.

Later, nihilism also touched on Western culture, for example, in Germany it was called the term Nihilismus, it was first used by the writer F. G. Jacobi, who was later known as a philosopher. Some philosophers attribute the emergence of nihilism based on the crisis of Christianity, accompanied by denial and protest. Nietzsche was also a nihilist, recognizing the current as a realization of the bankruptcy and even illusory nature of the Christian supramundane God, as well as the idea of ​​progress.

Who is a nihilist

The term "nihilism" is more often used in the field of politics, where it means "recognizing nothing." But in a broad sense, it is used in relation to youth movements, and in relation to adolescents, and in relation to the worldview of a particular person.

The nihilist denies social moral standards and values ​​(love, family, health), patterns of behavior, established civil law regime. Sometimes a nihilist finds like-minded people, but together with them (or without them) he turns out to be divorced from real life in society.

The nihilist denies everything, even the very value of human life. He does not recognize, does not trust anyone and does not obey. Nihilism involves the rejection of modern laws and standards of life, but at the same time, the nihilist may well be guided by the orders of other communities. However, even more often, a nihilist promotes his living standards.

The nihilist is characterized by cynical thinking, smirks, stinging remarks and ridicule, provocations, irony, impudent behavior. He often talks about how he "infuriates" humanity and the very structure of the world.

The basic principles and views of nihilists

The most common claims of nihilists are considered to be the following:

  • There is no main ruler or creator, i.e. God does not exist, since there is no reasonable and understandable evidence of this fact.
  • Morality and morality in an independent form does not exist.
  • Life has no truth and any objective action is no more important than another.
The principles of nihilists are always close to reality and their reasoning is always based only on facts. A nihilist is a person who treats everything with skeptic incredulity and suspicion and in many ways seeks a non-standard explanation.

Nihilists in Russia

In Russian literature, the word "nihilism" was first used by N. I. Nadezhdin in the article "The host of nihilists" (Vestnik Evropy magazine, 1829). In 1858, a book by Kazan professor VV Bervi, “Psychological comparative view of the beginning and end of life,” was published. It also uses the word "nihilism" as a synonym for skepticism.

Currently, the term "legal nihilism" is widely used - disrespect for the law. It reflects a widespread phenomenon in the legal life of Russian society. Its structure-forming component is an idea that denies legitimate social attitudes and carries a significant ideological burden, caused not only by social development trends and relevant values, but also by a number of psychogenic factors.

The causes of nihilism

He becomes a nihilist who feels pressure, the need to obey, the unmet need for self-realization. All people live in one society, why then are some able to declare themselves within the framework of classical foundations, while others enter into a confrontation with society?

The roots of nihilism go back to childhood, in which someone offended a child. So he is angry at everyone, hates the whole world, denies everything in the world and despises. But in fact, he is angry and offended by only one specific person (someone from childhood), but.

Disappointment in the world and growing up, the absence and misunderstanding of one’s existence are additional causes of nihilism. It is worth noting that they follow from the previous reasons.

Denial is a protective mechanism of the psyche by which a person tries to maintain health in a traumatic situation. What parents raise a nihilist:

  • demanding and prohibiting,
  • overly custody
  • passive, detached, emotionally cold.

Any childhood perceived by the child as difficult and dangerous potentially forms a nihilist. An adult nihilist occupies a borderline position: on the one hand, he tries to escape from the past, denies it, on the other hand, he relies on the experience of the past and negatively assesses the present with the future (he sees the same evil and danger in them).

Awareness of the conventions of human freedom, which occurs in adolescence, provokes the existential beginning of nihilism. When a person realizes that at the same time he feels the need for freedom and individuality, but at the same time wants to be involved in society, then an internal conflict develops with attempts to find a middle ground, to be a free and independent person within a society, a group of people. With inadequate resolution of this conflict, a desire arises to destroy oneself and the world through denial, that is, nihilism.

Types of Nihilism

  1. Philosophical , arguing that existence does not carry a specific semantic load, truth, factor and value.
  2. Mereological . According to this type, objects and objects created from separate parts do not exist.
  3. Metaphysical . Here the basis is the position based on the theory of the denial of the existence of objects in real time.
  4. Epistemological the kind of nihilism denies any kind of knowledge.
  5. Moral the view claims, taking into account the metaetic opinion, that there are no such concepts as moral or immoral.
  6. Legal nihilism.Here, the norms and rules of behavior established by the governing body are called into question. In this thinking in the public environment there is an active and passive denial of the rights of the individual. This is an obstacle to the normal development of society and can cause illegal actions.

"What is Bazarov?"

It is with this question that P.P. Kirsanov to his nephew Arkady. The words that Bazarov is a nihilist, his brother Pavel Petrovich was amazed. For representatives of his generation, life without principles is impossible.

It is worth noting that the nihilists in literature are primarily the heroes of Turgenev. The most striking, of course, is Bazarov, who had followers, Kukshina and Sitnikov.

Nihilist preferences

In fact, the nihilist of our day is a person based on spiritual minimalism and a special theory of awareness. The preferences of nihilists are based on the denial of any meanings, rules, norms, social rules, traditions and morality. Such people are not peculiar to the worship of any rulers, they do not recognize authorities, do not believe in higher powers, and deny the laws and requirements of the public.

Psychologists note that nihilism is actually a close course to realism, but at the same time it relies exclusively on a factual basis. This is a kind of skepticism, thinking at a critical point, but in the form of an expanded philosophical interpretation. Specialists also note the causes of the emergence of nihilism - an aggravated sense of self-preservation and human egoism, nihilists recognize only the material, denying the spiritual.

What does a nihilist and nihilism look like in real life and in literature

In Russia, the definition of nihilism appeared in 1829. The first to use this term was Nadezhdin N.I. At a later time, nihilism was indicated in the work of Bervi V.V. Nihilism in the form in which we know it gained wider fame in the novel of Turgenev I.S. "Fathers and Sons". The fame of this work allowed the term nihilism to turn into a winged expression.

In modern society, a nihilist can often be found in real life, as well as in literature. Undoubtedly, in literature the term nihilism is most vividly and fully described by Turgenev in his work. With the help of the main character as a nihilist, the author conveyed to the reader the whole meaning of this concept, and the consequences of such behavior. This novel tal is very popular and gained its fans. With the passage of time, the meaning of the word nihilism began to include more and more meanings. The previously established principles are supplemented by the denial of authority and doubt about the legal capabilities of citizens.

Nihilism is the despair of a person about his inability to do a thing to which he is not called at all.
Vasily Vasilievich Rozanov. Apocalypse of our time

Nihilism as a direction is mainly found in Russia and other countries of the post-Soviet space. In Western countries, nihilism as a philosophical movement almost does not exist and is manifested in isolated cases. Nihilism in Russia appeared in the early 60s of the 19th century. Bright representatives of this direction were Chernyshevsky, Pisarev and Dobrolyubov. Later representatives of the nihilistic movement include V.I. Lenin. Some features of his behavior and views allow him to be attributed to such followers.

In addition to representatives of Russian nihilism, the most famous is the German philosopher Nietzsche. He was an ardent nihilist in every way. His worldview and conviction is based on the devaluation of high values ​​and the denial of God. In addition to all this, he denied the need for compassion for another person and took the presence of such a quality for weakness. By his definition, an ideal is an evil and selfish person who is not capable of empathy and sympathy.

Afterword

The nihilist, as a rule, is not understood by the people around him, which is why he closes in himself. He becomes a hostage of his own conservatism and categoricality, fixated on his own. The personality develops only in the process, social activity, respectively, the nihilist does not develop.

Nihilism as a philosophical concept postulates the following ideas: there is no morality that is called real, nothing clearly indicates the existence of a supreme creator of all things, being has no truth, there are no right and wrong actions, objectively their value is the same. As you might guess, a nihilist is a person who has become disillusioned with the world. Nihilism is the most sarcastic concept, hiding under the guise of cynicism the bitterness of disappointment in everything and the awareness of the futility of being.

The greatest distribution to this term was provided by the nihilists of the 19th century, since it was during this period that the nihilistic movement acquired a particular scale both in Russia and in the West. The concept of "nihilism" was first introduced by F.G. Jacobi, a German philosopher. The most vivid nihilist in the history of philosophy is undoubtedly Friedrich Nietzsche, who believes that the true world (as it should be in the opinion of pro-Christian thinkers) does not exist, that this is nothing more than an illusion, a fiction. O. Spengler owns the idea of ​​the decline of European culture, the destruction of previous forms of consciousness. Another well-known nihilist is one who believes that the Christian faith is undergoing a crisis, which is the reason for the spread of nihilistic views.

Nihilism in Russia of the 19th century

From the second half of the 19th century, a movement began to increase in Russia that denied the prevailing foundations of social society. The sixties raiders preached atheism and materialism and ridiculed religious ideology. The term "nihilism" gained the greatest popularity thanks to the well-known novel by I. Turgenev. “Fathers and Sons” and the general popular mood described in it fully corresponded to the ideas of nihilism, which served to spread this term among the masses.

Psychological point of view

For those who are a little familiar with psychology and such a concept as it becomes obvious that nihilism is just a form of such protection.

In fact, a nihilist is in search of the meaning and reason for his being in the world. The surrounding reality does not correspond to the internal ideas of a person about what the true world should be, and this contradiction is reflected in the process of denial. So, nihilism and nihilists are analyzed from the point of view of deep psychology. A person is torn between two trends - the desire for freedom and the need for belonging to a group. The stronger the desire for freedom, the more lonely the individual feels on his way. E. Fromm's work “Escape from Freedom” describes the characteristics when he perceives this freedom, namely, the desire to destroy the world (at least through denying it) and the desire to destroy himself thereby rejecting the meaning of his existence. Proponents of the bodily approach in psychology note the external characteristics of a nihilist: an ironic smirk, provocative behavior, ironic remarks. These are defensive reactions fixed in the past, which have remained in the traits of man.

Thus, nihilism is a peculiar response of a person to what is happening in the world, a protective reaction in response to objectionable manifestations of the surrounding reality.

Nihilism. What is this phenomenon? This is the name of the doctrine, which states that all life and reality are limited only by phenomena, there is nothing higher than sensual. But this is only a theory of nihilism, but in reality it denies the importance of goodness, valor and truth and the highest foundations of being.

The development of nihilism began in the 19th century as a result of the influx of atheistic and materialistic ideas. The nihilists held the point of view of total denial, for them there was nothing worthy of respect.They considered trifles everything that people used to bow down, mocked at generally accepted categories, sought to break and reject everything that had been approved for centuries.

The nihilists themselves considered themselves people who are critical of everything, do not recognize authority and do not accept principles on faith. The nihilists denied the denial of mania, they were even ashamed if they had to share their opinions with anyone. Nihilism - what is it? Unconditional denial or contradiction to principles? According to nihilism, all the ideals of mankind are just ghosts that limit a person’s free consciousness and prevent him from living right.

Nihilism in this world recognized only matter, only atoms that form a particular phenomenon. The main causes of nihilism are selfishness and a sense of self-preservation, not knowing the feelings of spiritual love. Everything creative, according to the nihilists, is sheer nonsense, unnecessary and pretentious. It is clear that they were also hostile to religion. Nihilism denies the existence of God and the immortality of the soul.

Moreover, answering the question: “Nihilism - what is it?”, One cannot but note the moral licentiousness that the nihilists preached. They did not consider it necessary to maintain moral bashfulness, since shame is one of the signs of weakness.

Characteristic features of Russian nihilism

According to the views of nihilism, marriage and family ties at all levels were considered only an incomprehensible and unnecessary prejudice. This teaching ridiculed the manifestation of cordial and kinship affection. In their relations with their relatives, the nihilists showed insensibility, and as a result of spiritual degradation, the nihilists became tough cynics not only in words but in deeds: the nihilists sought to neglect all the rules of decency in actions, in communication, and even in the manner of dressing.

Denial is the main feature of Russian nihilism. Representatives themselves defined nihilism in such a way - that it was "not to be taken seriously for anything, just to swear." Therefore, it is understandable that the denial of the nihilists led to the complete destruction of the inner world, leaving behind a void and joyless insignificance. Nihilists are close only to everything negative, they are filled with contempt for everything.

This teaching is manifested in exaggerated doubt in the known principles and values. There is also in which the object of denial is law. In this kind of nihilism, legal norms are not considered an ideal way to regulate social relations.

The principles of nihilists

Representatives of this trend are characterized by the main principle - the absence of any principles.

The most vivid ideological position of Bazarov is reflected in disputes with Pavel Petrovich Kirsanov.

Heroes have different attitudes towards ordinary people. Bazarov considers these people “dark,” Kirsanov is touched by the patriarchal nature of the peasant family.

Nature for Eugene is a kind of pantry in which a person can host. Pavel Petrovich admires her beauty.

The main nihilist in the novel Fathers and Sons has a negative attitude towards art. Reading literature for Bazarov is an empty pastime.

Eugene and Pavel Petrovich - representatives of different social strata. Bazarov is a commoner. This largely explains his attitude towards the people and his indifference to everything beautiful. He imagines how hard the lives of those who cultivate the land. Russian nihilists, as a rule, really were raznochintsy. This is probably due to their revolutionary attitude and rejection of the social system.

What is nihilism and the history of its origin

Nihilism in simple words is nothing, emptiness, destruction ideals of previous generations, denial of moral and ethical principles.

Filling the void is not in the circle of interests of nihilists, so their philosophical ideas are negative, since don't offer anything in return . Nihilism flourishes on the basis of the depreciation of life, the loss of its meaning and purpose.

"Nihilism is a pose, not a doctrine."
Carlos Ruiz Safon. "Game of an angel"

V. Dahl in his dictionary gave a capacious and witty definition of nihilism:

"... an ugly and immoral teaching that rejects everything that cannot be felt."

The term "nihilism" (from lat. Nihil - nothing) came from the Middle Ages, so in the XII century they called one of the heresies who denied the divine-human nature of Christ.

The word itself has been used in European languages ​​since the 18th century in the meaning of denying the norms accepted in society. Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi coined the term in philosophy in 1799 in his work Sendschreiben an Fichte.

Conclusion

The nihilist denies family values, spiritual life, moral principles, i.e. he does not recognize these fundamental concepts on which society holds and exists. Everyone should be aware that all these fundamentals are important and without them normal functioning among people is not possible.

Do you think nihilism is a sentence, or is it still possible to change a person’s worldview? Are they born or become nihilists?

A nihilist is a person who denies the importance of generally accepted values, both moral and cultural. The term "nihilist comes from the Latin" nihil "and means" nothing. " The nihilist rejects all principles, does not recognize a priori authorities. In addition to disagreeing with generally accepted values ​​and ideas, he also denies the meaningfulness of human existence. Nihilists are prone to critical thinking and skepticism.

Nihilists in literature

A well-known literary work that touched on the concept of nihilism is the novel “The Nihilist” by the author Sofia Kovalevskaya about the Russian revolutionary movement. The denunciation of “nihilism” in the form of crude caricature can be traced in such famous literary works as “The Cliff” by Goncharov, “On the Knives” by Leskov, “The Sputtered Sea” by Pisemsky, “Marevo” by Klyushnikov “Fracture” and “Abyss” of Markevich and many other works .

Followers of Bazarov

To the question of which of the heroes was a nihilist in Fathers and Sons, you can, of course, answer that Arkady Kirsanov considered himself a student of Bazarov. Kukshina and Sitnikov also impersonate his followers. However, can they be considered nihilists?

Arkady, although trying to imitate Bazarov, has a completely different attitude to art, nature, native people. He takes over only Bazarov’s cold manner of communication, speaks in a low voice and holds on cheekily. Arkady is a well-mannered young man. He is educated, sincere, intelligent. The younger Kirsanov grew up in a different environment, he did not have to earn money to study.

However, when Evgeni Bazarov falls in love with Anna Odintsova, it seems that his behavior also carried a hint of simplicity. Of course, he is much harder than Arkady, more deeply shares the ideas of nihilism, but at the same time he still could not reject all values ​​with his soul. At the end of the novel, when Bazarov expects his own death, he recognizes the power of parental love.

If we talk about Kukshina and Sitnikov, they are portrayed by Turgenev with such irony that the reader immediately understands that it is not worthwhile to perceive from as “serious” nihilists. Kukshina, of course, is "springing up", trying to seem different from what she really is. The author calls her a "creature", thereby emphasizing fussiness and stupidity.

The writer pays Sitnikov even less attention. This hero is the son of a innkeeper. He is not far off, holding on cheekily, probably copying Bazarov’s manner. He has a dream to make people happy, using the money earned by his father for this, which expresses disrespect for others' work and for parents.

What did the author want to say with such an ironic attitude towards these characters? Firstly, both heroes personify the negative aspects of the personality of Bazarov himself.After all, he does not show respect for the established values ​​that were established many centuries ago. Bazarov also disregards parents who live only in love for their only son.

The second point that the writer wanted to show is that the time of the “market” has not yet arrived.

A nihilist is a person who denies not offering

The boom of nihilism occurred in the second half of the 19th century and is connected with the philosophical ideas of the Germans Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche and Oswald Spengler, although their compatriot Max Stirner is considered the first nihilist (1806-1856).

"Fathers and Sons"

The nihilists in Russian literature are primarily the heroes from Turgenev’s books that were remembered by everyone, for example, the reflecting nihilist Bazarov and followed by his ideologies Sitnikov and Kukushkin. Bazarov’s atypical worldview position is already evident in dialogues and disputes with Pavel Petrovich Kirsanov, showing a different attitude towards ordinary people. In the book Fathers and Sons, the nihilist shows a pronounced denial of art and literature.

The history of the origin of the term "nihilism"

Thanks to Turgenev, the concept of nihilism was widespread, but he did not invent this term. There is an assumption that Ivan Sergeyevich borrowed it from N.I. Nadezhina, who in the publication used it to negatively characterize new literary and philosophical movements.

Nevertheless, it was after the distribution of the novel Fathers and Sons that the term received a socio-political connotation and began to be widely used.

It must also be said that the literal translation of this word does not convey the content of this concept. Representatives of the movement were not at all devoid of ideals. There is an assumption that the author, having created the image of Bazarov, condemns the revolutionary-democratic movement. At the same time, Turgenev says his romance is directed against the aristocracy.

So, the term "nihilism" was originally conceived as a synonym for the word "revolution". However, the word gained such popularity that a seminarian who chose to study at the university and abandoned his spiritual career, or a girl who chose her husband at the behest of her heart, and not by order of her relatives, could consider herself a nihilist.

Nihilism (from lat. nihil - nothing) - a worldview position, expressed in the denial of the meaningfulness of human existence, the significance of accepted moral and cultural values, non-recognition of any kind of authority. The carriers of nihilistic representations are called nihilists .

In philosophy There are the following varieties of nihilism:

  • a philosophical position stating that being does not have an impartial meaning, premise, truth or value,
  • meteorological nihilism is a philosophical position according to which objects consisting of parts are not,
  • metaphysical nihilism is a philosophical theory according to which the existence of objects is not really necessary,
  • epistemological nihilism - the denial of knowledge,
  • moral nihilism is a metaethical idea that nothing is moral or immoral.

    In the Middle Ages, there was a doctrine known as nihilism, which was anathematized by Father Alexander II in 1179. The doctrine of nihilism, incorrectly attributed to the scholastic Peter Lombard, rejected the human nature of Christ.

    In Western philosophical thought, the term "nihilism" was introduced by the German writer and philosopher F.G. Jacobi. This concept was used by many philosophers. So, S. Kierkegaard considered the crisis of Christianity and the spread of an “aesthetic” attitude to be a source of nihilism. F. Nietzsche realized under nihilism the understanding of the illusory and untenable nature of both the Christian idea of ​​the worldly God (“God died”) and the idea of ​​progress, which he considered a version of religious faith. ABOUT.Spengler called nihilism a feature of modern European civilization, undergoing a period of “sunset” and “senile forms of consciousness,” which in the cultures of other nations supposedly inevitably followed a state of higher prosperity. M. Heidegger regarded nihilism as a major movement in the history of the West, which could lead to a global catastrophe.

    Nihilists adhere to some or all of the following statements:

  • there is no reasonable confirmation of the existence of a supreme ruler or creator,
  • "Real morality" does not exist,
  • there are no absolute truths in life, and no action is impartially better than any other.

    In Russian literature, the word "nihilism" was first used by N.I. Nadezhdin in the article "The host of nihilists" (journal "Herald of Europe", 1829). In 1858, the book of Kazan doctor V.V. Bervy "Psychological comparative look at the beginning and end of life." It also uses the word "nihilism" as a synonym for skepticism.

    Critic and Concrete Publicist N.A. Dobrolyubov, ridiculed the book of Bervy, grabbed the word, but it was not particularly popular until I.S. Turgenev in the novel "Fathers and Sons" (1862) did not refer to Bazarov as the "nihilist" who denied the views of the "fathers." The tremendous memory produced by “Fathers and Sons” also made the term “nihilist” winged. In his own memoirs, Turgenev said that when he returned to Petersburg after the publication of his novel - and this happened during the recognizable Petersburg fires of 1862 - the word “nihilist” was already picked up by many, and the first exclamation escaped from the mouth of the first acquaintance met by Turgenev was: “Look what your nihilists are doing: they burn Petersburg!”

    Consequently, in the second half of the 19th century, nihilists in the Russian Empire began to call young people who wanted to change the existing municipal and public system in the country, refuted religion, preached materialism and atheism, also did not recognize the prevailing moral standards (they advocated free love, etc. .P.). Namely, the so-called Narodnik revolutionaries. The word had an obvious bad connotation.

    By the end of the 60s - the beginning. 70s XIX century the word "nihilist" practically disappeared from Russian polemical literature, however, it began to be used in Western European literature as a designation of the Russian revolutionary movement, it was adopted by certain Russian emigrants who wrote in foreign languages ​​about the Russian revolutionary movement. In 1884, the novel “The Nihilist” by Sophia Kovalevskaya was published.

    Currently, the term is widely used "Legal nihilism" - disrespect for the law.

    Nihilism in the research work of psychologists

    Erich Fromm proposed approaching nihilism as one of the devices of mental defense. He believed that the central problem of man is the contradiction inherent in human existence between being “thrown into the world except his own will” and the fact that he goes beyond the boundaries of nature due to the ability to think about himself, others, the past and the future. Fromm argues that the development of man, his personality occurs in the framework of the formation of 2 main trends: zeal for freedom and zeal for alienation. Human development follows the path of growth of "freedom", but not every person can use this method correctly, causing a number of negative psychological experiences and conditions, and this leads to his alienation. As a result, a person loses his self . A protective mechanism of “escape from freedom” appears, for which the following are characteristic: masochistic and sadistic patterns, destructivism, a person’s zeal to damage the world so that it does not destroy itself, nihilism, automatic conformism.

    The concept of nihilism is also analyzed by V. Reich.He wrote that bodily properties (restraint and tension) and features such as a constant grin, neglect, ironic and defiant behavior - these are the remnants of very strong protective devices in the past, which were separated from their own initial situations and reincarnated as invariable . They appear as a "character neurosis", one of the circumstances of which is the action of the protective mechanism, nihilism. “Character neurosis” is a class of neurosis, in which the protective conflict is expressed in separate features of the character, methods of behavior, i.e. in the pathological organization of the personality as a whole.

  • wikiznanie.ru - definition of a term in the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron,
  • terme.ru - definition of a term in I.S. Ethics Dictionary Kona (1981),
  • bse.sci-lib.com - nihilism in Russia of the 19th century,
  • emc.komi.com - nihilism,
  • feb-web.ru - the article "Nihilists" in the Literary Encyclopedia (T. 8., 1934),
  • uk.wikipedia.org - nihilism (psychoanalysis) (in Ukrainian).

    Additionally to the site:

  • What is morality?
  • What is cynicism?
  • What is pedantry?
  • What is vandalism?
  • What is conscience?

    Nihilism as a philosophical concept postulates the following ideas: there is no morality that is called real, nothing clearly indicates the existence of a supreme creator of all things, being has no truth, there are no right and wrong actions, objectively their value is the same. As you might guess, a nihilist is a person who has become disillusioned with the world. Nihilism is the most sarcastic concept, hiding under the guise of cynicism the bitterness of disappointment in everything and the awareness of the futility of being.

    The greatest distribution to this term was provided by the nihilists of the 19th century, since it was during this period that the nihilistic movement acquired a particular scale both in Russia and in the West. The concept of "nihilism" was first introduced by F.G. Jacobi, a German philosopher. The most vivid nihilist in the history of philosophy is undoubtedly Friedrich Nietzsche, who believes that the true world (as it should be in the opinion of pro-Christian thinkers) does not exist, that this is nothing more than an illusion, a fiction. O. Spengler owns the idea of ​​the decline of European culture, the destruction of previous forms of consciousness. Another well-known nihilist is one who believes that the Christian faith is undergoing a crisis, which is the reason for the spread of nihilistic views.

    Nihilism in Russia of the 19th century

    From the second half of the 19th century, a movement began to increase in Russia that denied the prevailing foundations of social society. The sixties raiders preached atheism and materialism and ridiculed religious ideology. The term "nihilism" gained the greatest popularity thanks to the well-known novel by I. Turgenev. “Fathers and Sons” and the general popular mood described in it fully corresponded to the ideas of nihilism, which served to spread this term among the masses.

    Psychological point of view

    For those who are a little familiar with psychology and such a concept as it becomes obvious that nihilism is just a form of such protection.

    In fact, a nihilist is in search of the meaning and reason for his being in the world. The surrounding reality does not correspond to the internal ideas of a person about what the true world should be, and this contradiction is reflected in the process of denial. So, nihilism and nihilists are analyzed from the point of view of deep psychology. A person is torn between two trends - the desire for freedom and the need for belonging to a group. The stronger the desire for freedom, the more lonely the individual feels on his way. E. Fromm's work “Escape from Freedom” describes the characteristics when he perceives this freedom, namely, the desire to destroy the world (at least through denying it) and the desire to destroy himself thereby rejecting the meaning of his existence.Proponents of the bodily approach in psychology note the external characteristics of a nihilist: an ironic smirk, provocative behavior, ironic remarks. These are defensive reactions fixed in the past, which have remained in the traits of man.

    Thus, nihilism is a peculiar response of a person to what is happening in the world, a protective reaction in response to objectionable manifestations of the surrounding reality.

    What is better - to be categorical in judgments or to remain democratic and try to understand and accept the opinions of others? Each of us chooses what is closer. There are many different currents expressing a person’s position. What is nihilism, and what are the principles of nihilism - we offer to understand.

    Russian nihilists

    In Russia, the question “What is nihilism?” Was answered both from a positive point of view and from a negative one. M.A. Bakunin, P.A. Kropotkin, D.I. Pisarev - the famous Russian nihilists of the XIX century.

    On Russian soil, this worldview has acquired its own characteristics - our nihilists tried to explain the social and social processes. lean on Darwin's theory , therefore, described from the perspective of Darwinists. Man is an animal, therefore he lives according to the laws of the struggle for the existence of a species.

    The ideas of nihilism were in the air, and I.S. Turgenev's “Fathers and Sons”, published in 1862, produced in society furor . Now, who is such a nihilist, everyone has learned.

    According to the memoirs of Turgenev himself, the prototype of the hero of Bazarov was a young provincial doctor who struck him, whose ideas made a strong impression on the writer. Turgenev tried to grasp the essence of the personality with a similar set of thoughts and describe this phenomenon in the image of Bazarov the nihilist.

    An active person appears before the reader, a fighter who puts himself in opposition to everyone and everything. He is not interested in the opinions of others about himself, Bazarov harsh and unceremonious , he gives an amazing definition of art, religion and philosophy - "romanticism, nonsense, rot, art."

    From this attitude to life, Bazarov’s worldview is born denial philosophy all prevailing human norms and ideals and accepting only scientific facts.

    "A nihilist is a person who does not bow to any authorities, who does not accept any principle on faith, no matter how respectful this principle may be."
    I.S. Turgenev. “Fathers and Sons” (words by Arkady Kirsanov)

    Bazarov denies the spiritual principle in man, he refers to it as a biological species - no more:

    "One human specimen is enough to judge all the others."

    Turgenev is sympathetic to his hero, trying to understand how such a philosophy is born in people, but does not share such views. The novel is based not only on the external conflict between fathers and children, Bazarov and the noble society, but also on the hero’s deep internal conflict.

    A nihilist is a person who trying to to resolve the social conflict by denying the value of the old world order, which it considers insolvent due to the injustice prevailing around. But denying he does not offer nothing in return.

    After Turgenev’s novel, the images of nihilists filled Russian literature - from the heroes of Chernyshevsky, obviously positive, to the antiheroes of Dostoevsky, Leskov, etc.

    They began to call nihilists revolutionary-minded raznoshintsy and young people, students who opposed the noble-feudal principles of building society in Russia at that time.

    The views of nihilists

    The doctrine of nihilism arose in the twelfth century, but was soon regarded as heretical and anathematized by Pope Alexander III.

    The nihilistic movement in the 19th century in the West and in Russia gained particular scope. He was associated with the names of Jacobi, Nietzsche, Stirner, Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin and others.

    The very concept of "nihilism" was introduced by the German philosopher F.G. Jacobi.The most prominent representative of nihilism was F. Nietzsche. He believed that there was no truth in the world, and his existence - pro-Christian thinkers.

    Another famous nihilist O. Spengler promoted the idea of ​​the decline of European culture and the destruction of previous forms of consciousness.

    S. Kierkegaard believed that the crisis in the Christian faith is the reason for the spread of the nihilistic movement.

    In Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century there appeared more supporters of nihilism, denying the existing foundations of society. They ridiculed religious ideology and preached atheism.

    The meaning of the word nihilist is most revealed in the image of Yevgeny Bazarov, the hero of the novel by I. S. Turgenev “Fathers and Sons”. A bright representative of his time, he expressed the social as well as political changes that took place then in society. He was a "new man," a rebel. Student Bazarov described by Turgenev as a supporter of the most "ruthless and complete denial." First of all, he opposed autocracy, serfdom, religion - this is all that gave rise to national poverty, lawlessness, darkness, community, patriarchal antiquity, family oppression. Undoubtedly, this denial was revolutionary in nature, such nihilism was characteristic of the revolutionary democrats of the 60s.

    Among the main types of nihilism in modern society, there are several.

    Legal nihilism is the denial of laws. This can lead to inhibition of the legal system, illegal actions, as well as chaos.

    The causes of legal nihilism can have historical roots, it also arises from the inconsistency of laws with the interests of citizens, people's disagreement with many scientific concepts.

    Moral nihilism is a metaethical position that states that nothing can be moral or immoral. Nihilists suggest that even murder, regardless of its circumstances and reasons, cannot be regarded as a bad or good deed.

    Youthful nihilism, as well as youthful maximalism, is expressed by vivid emotions in the denial of everything. The growing personality often disagrees with the views, habits and lifestyle of adults and seeks to protect itself from the negativity of real life. This type of nihilism is often inherent not only to young men, but also to emotional people of all ages and is expressed in various fields (in religion, culture, rights, knowledge, public life).

    Mereological nihilism is quite common today. This is a philosophical position that insists that objects made up of parts do not exist, but only basic objects that are not made up of parts. For example, a nihilist is sure that the forest does not exist as a separate object, but as a multitude of plants in a limited space. And that the concept of "forest" was created to facilitate human thinking and communication.

    Geographic nihilism began to stand out relatively recently. Its essence lies in the denial and lack of understanding of the illogical use of geographical features of parts of the world, the substitution of geographical directions north-east-south-west and geographical parts of the world by cultural ideological idealism.

    Epistemological nihilism is a form that asserts doubt about the possibility of attaining knowledge. It arose as a reaction to the ideal and universal goal of ancient Greek thinking. Sophists were the first to support skepticism. After some time, a school was formed that denied the possibility of perfect knowledge. Then the problem of nihilism was already clear, consisting in the unwillingness of its supporters to obtain the necessary knowledge.

    Popular nihilism today is cultural. Its essence is the denial of the cultural trends of all spheres of society. Russo, Nietzsche and the other founders of the counterculture completely denied the whole of Western civilization, as well as bourgeois culture. The biggest criticism fell on the cult of consumerism of mass society and mass culture.Nihilists are sure that only the vanguard is worthy of development and preservation.

    Religious nihilism is a rebellion, rebellion against religion, a negative attitude to spiritual social values. Criticism of religion is expressed in a pragmatic attitude towards life, in spirituality. Such a nihilist is called; nothing sacred for him.

    Social nihilism is expressed in a variety of manifestations. This is hostility to state institutions, reforms, social protests against various transformations, innovations and shock methods, disagreement with various political decisions, rejection of a new way of life, new values ​​and changes, denial of Western patterns of behavior.

    Among the negative aspects of nihilism is the inability to go beyond one’s own views, lack of understanding among others, categorical opinions, which often harm the nihilist himself. However, it is positive that the nihilist shows his individuality, defends his own opinion, seeks and opens up something new.

    Nihilism (from lat. nihil - nothing) - a worldview position, expressed in the denial of the meaningfulness of human existence, the significance of generally accepted moral and cultural values, non-recognition of any authorities. In Western philosophical thought, the term "N." was introduced by the German writer and philosopher F. G. Jacobi. This concept was used by many. philosophers. S. Kierkegaard considered the source of N. the crisis of Christianity and the spread of "aesthetic" attitude. F. Nietzsche understood N. as the recognition of the illusory nature and inconsistency of both the Christian idea of ​​the worldly God (“God died”) and the idea of ​​progress, which he considered a version of religious faith. O. Spengler N. called a feature of modern European culture, experiencing a period of "sunset" and "senile forms of consciousness", which supposedly inevitably followed a state of higher prosperity in the cultures of other peoples. M. Heidegger regarded N. as the main movement in the history of the West, which could lead to a global catastrophe.

    Nietzsche

    It is also known that Nietzsche was a nihilist, his nihilism consisted in the depreciation of high values. A philosopher and philologist, Nietzsche linked the nature of man and value, but he immediately emphasized that man himself depreciates everything. The famous philosopher insisted that compassion is a destructive quality, even when it comes to loved ones. His nihilism is nothing more than the idea of ​​a superman and a Christian ideal that is free in every sense.

    Literature

    • Friedrich Nietzsche - .
    • Friedrich Nietzsche -
    • Baboshin V.V. Nihilism in modern society: a phenomenon and essence: abstract. dis. doc Philos. n Stavropol, 2011.38 s.
    • Tkachenko S.V.
    • Tkachenko S.V. : monograph. - Samara, 2009.
    • Rossinskaya E.R. Compiled by E. R. Rossinskaya, Doctor of Law, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation.
    • Gulyaikhin V.N. Legal nihilism in Russia. Volgograd: Change, 2005.280 s.
    • Gulyaikhin V.N. // NB: Law and policy issues. 2012. No. 3. S. 108-148.
    • De Poule M.F. Nihilism as a pathological phenomenon of Russian life. M .: University type. M. Katkova, 1881.53 s.
    • Klevanov A.S. Three contemporary questions: On education - socialism, communism and nihilism - on the nobility regarding the centenary of noble diploma. Kiev: type. P. Barsky, 1885.66 s.
    • Kosykhin V.G. A critical analysis of the ontological foundations of nihilism: dis. doc Philos. n Saratov, 2009.364 s.
    • Pigalev A.I. Philosophical nihilism and the crisis of culture. Saratov: Publishing house of Sarat. Univ., 1991.149 s.

    Dostoevsky

    In the works of Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky there are also nihilists. In the understanding of the writer, a nihilist is a type of tragic thinker, rebel and denier of social norms, as well as an adversary of God himself. If we consider the work "Demons", the character Shatov, Stavrogin and Kirillov became the nihilist. This also includes Dostoevsky's book Crime and Punishment, where nihilism reached the brink of murder.

    Brief Summary

    Modern society is still subject to nihilism . What does this mean? Morality, morality, concepts of honor are being washed away, ignored, slogans are proclaimed that contradict generally accepted norms and laws.

    Every day we encounter these manifestations on the street, at home, watching TV.The danger of this approach is that it, combining with radical, anarchist and other extreme ideas, disruptive .

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    What is better - to be categorical in judgments or to remain democratic and try to understand and accept the opinions of others? Each of us chooses what is closer. There are many different currents expressing a person’s position. What is nihilism, and what are the principles of nihilism - we offer to understand.

    References

    • // Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary: in 86 volumes (82 volumes and 4 additional). - SPb. , 1890-1907.

    Directions
    Figures
    In literature
    In the cinema
    Scholars of nihilism
    Related ideas
    see also

    Ideology

    Nihilists adhere to some or all of the following statements:

    There is no reasonable evidence of a superior ruler or creator

    - “real morality” does not exist

    Objective secular ethics is impossible, therefore life, in a certain sense, has no truth, and no action is objectively preferable to any other.

    What kind of nihilist is he today?

    Many philosophers are inclined to the idea that modern man in itself is already a nihilist to some extent, although the modern current of nihilism has already branched into other subspecies. Many people, not even knowing the essence of nihilism, sail their ship throughout their lives, which is called nihilism. The modern nihilist is a person who does not recognize any values, generally accepted norms and morality, does not bow to any will.

    Legal nihilism

    Legal nihilism is understood as the denial of law as a kind of social institution, as well as a system of rules of behavior that successfully regulates human relationships. This legal nihilism consists in the denial of laws, leading to illegal actions, chaos and inhibition of the legal system. The reasons for legal nihilism can be as follows:

    1. Laws do not correspond to the interests of citizens.
    2. Historical roots.
    3. Different scientific concepts.

    Moral nihilism

    Scientific literature says what nihilism means and what its types are. Moral nihilism is a metaethical position, according to which nothing can be immoral or moral. A proponent of this type of nihilism suggests that murder, regardless of the reasons and circumstances, cannot be called a good or bad act. Moral nihilism is close to moral relativism, which acknowledges the utterance of some possibility to be both true and false in a subjective sense, but at the same time does not allow their objective truth.

    Youthful nihilism

    It is known about the concept of nihilism and the younger generation. Often in adolescence, children want to better understand themselves and choose their own. However, there are often cases when a teenager denies much. This behavior is called youthful nihilism. Youthful nihilism, like youthful maximalism, is an ardent and sometimes even accompanied by vivid emotions denial of something. This type of nihilism can be inherent not only to adolescents and youths, but also to emotional people of different ages and is manifested in a variety of areas:

    • in religion
    • in culture
    • in public life,
    • in knowledge
    • in rights.

    List of famous nihilists

    For a clear example of behavior, experts conducted research, after which they compiled a list of the most memorable personalities from different eras, promoting nihilism.

    Famous nihilists list:

    • Nechaev Sergey Gennadievich - revolutionary of Russia and author of "Catechism of the Revolutionary",
    • Erich Fromm is a German philosopher, sociologist and psychologist considering the term nihilism,
    • Wilhelm Reich - Austrian and American psychologist, Freud's only student who analyzes nihilism,
    • Nietzsche is a nihilist who denied the existence of material and spiritual values.
    • Seren Kierkegaard is a nihilist and Danish religious philosopher and writer.
    • O. Spengler - promoted the idea of ​​the decline of European culture and forms of consciousness.

    Based on all interpretations and currents, it is difficult to clearly characterize the essence of nihilism. In each era and time period, nihilism proceeded differently, denying either religion, then the world, now humanity, or power.

    Definition of a concept

    Despite the fact that you can often hear the word nihilists, not everyone knows what it means. It resembles the Latin language, translated as "nothing." This is a person who is in a certain course, subculture, denies the ideals, norms accepted by society. Nihilists can be found among creative personalities with a non-standard type of thinking, they can be heard about in the media, in literary works.

    A nihilist denies stereotypes, moral norms, and rules. Such a worldview position is controversial, often conflicting. It has a right to exist, however, it is not approved by society.

    In different historical eras, the definition of nihilism had somewhat distinctive meanings. They first talked about him in the medieval era, nihilism was considered as a specific teaching, which was represented by Pope Alexander III. In Germany, this term was used by the writer Yakubi, who considered it as a philosophical direction. Nietzsche was a nihilist, was convinced of the failure of the Christian God, opposed the ideas of progress.

    Today you can find both adherents of nihilism and its opponents. Someone in this phenomenon sees a pathological condition, and opposition to it is considered necessary, someone is a supporter of this idea.

    Nihilists do not believe in such values ​​as art, love, nature. However, human morality is always based on such concepts. Each individual is obliged to realize that in the surrounding world there are values, without which it is not possible to live. Namely, love for people, for life, a desire to receive satisfaction from their existence, to be happy. A person who is keen on nihilist views, over time, may realize the fallacy of his opinions, the incorrectness of judgment.

    Nihilists can deny spiritual life, family values, moral principles. They do not want to recognize the concepts that are part of the foundation of society. Everyone should understand that these foundations are important for a normal existence among people.

    Mereological nihilism

    One of the widespread types of such a concept as nihilism in our time is meteorological. It is customary to understand it as a certain philosophical position, according to which the objects consisting of parts do not exist, but there are only basic objects that are not composed of parts. An example would be a forest. The nihilist is sure that in reality he does not exist as a separate object. This is a lot of plants in a confined space. The very concept of “forest” was created in order to facilitate thinking and communication.

    Russian nihilism

    Russian nihilism is Russian maximalism, there is an inability to establish steps and gradations, to justify the hierarchy of values. This kind of nihilism also flourishes on completely Orthodox soil.Such a contempt for cultural values, for human creativity, for cognition, for philosophy, for art, for law, for relative and conditional forms of the public, like the Russian people, cannot be found in any nation. The Russian person is inclined to consider everything as nonsense and ashes except for the one that is necessary, for one it is the salvation of the soul for eternal life and the Kingdom of God, for the other it is a social revolution and the salvation of the world through a perfect social system. Nihilism was developed in the 19th century. Nihilists opposed survivals of serfdom.

    Conclusion

    Nihilism is a radical movement that denies everything of value in the world, starting with the spiritual, ending with the material benefits of mankind. Nihilists maintain absolute freedom from power, the state, prosperity, faith, higher powers and society. Today, a modern nihilist is significantly different from those who appeared in the era of the Middle Ages.

    Geographic Nihilism

    There are various forms of nihilism. Among them - geographical. It consists in denying and misunderstanding inconsistent use:

    • geographical directions
    • geographical signs of parts of the world,
    • substitution of geographical directions,
    • parts of the world culturological idealism.

    This type of nihilism is a new concept. Often it is called wrong, saying that when you deny the values ​​beyond natural conditions and try to tear the human society out of the material world, you can come to idealism. In other words, this drawback is that if you ignore the natural environment, this can lead to underestimation of these conditions. Given their influence, one must be aware that at its different stages the same combination of natural conditions can have different meanings and at the same time give different attention.

    Pros and cons

    We have already considered that nihilism is the negative attitude of an individual towards certain views, values ​​or ideals. This phenomenon is a form of worldview, a model of behavior in society.

    The benefits include:

    • ability to manifest one’s own personality,
    • search for new solutions, the probability of making discoveries,
    • the opportunity to declare your identity,
    • ability to defend one’s opinion.

    It is worth considering the negative aspects of this direction, namely:

    • limited views, the inability to go beyond the framework,
    • categorical judgments, which harms the nihilist himself,
    • lack of understanding that is caused by others, lack of normal friends and associates.

    Now you know what the concept of nihilism and nihilists means. Although nihilism is not a new phenomenon, there are still no answers to many questions affecting it. An individual person may interpret the meaning of this term in different ways, some treat nihilism as a disease that does not allow a normal life in society, others as a panacea.

    Nihilism is a philosophical movement that does not recognize the rules and authorities established by society. The person who shares such a worldview and calls into question any generally accepted norms is the Nihilist. This term is gaining popularity in many directions: religion, culture, law, social sphere.

    Having considered nihilism as a component of the public sphere, we can find out why this trend arose and at what time. It is important to analyze the principles and views of nihilists and the goals that they usually pursue.

    A nihilist is one who believes that life has no purpose, value or significance, including his own.
    Nihilists do not believe in the existence of any objective morality, and any rules / laws that they follow, if any, are superficial or are only respected by them for practical reasons.

    Epistemological nihilism

    Epistemological nihilism is understood as a radical form of skepticism, stating the doubtfulness of the possibility of knowledge. It arose as a reaction to the ideal and universal goal of ancient Greek thinking. Sophists were the first to support skepticism. After a while, a school denying the possibility of perfect knowledge was formed. Even then, the problem of nihilism was clear, consisting in the unwillingness of its supporters to obtain the necessary knowledge.

    Cultural nihilism

    Popular modern nihilism is cultural. It manifests itself in the denial of cultural trends in all areas of society. As far back as the sixties in the West a powerful movement "counterculture" arose. Then it was based on the views of Rousseau, Nietzsche and Freud. The counterculture completely denied all of Western civilization and bourgeois culture. The harshest criticism was directed against the cult of consumerism of mass society and mass culture. Proponents of this trend were convinced that only the vanguard was worthy of preservation and development.

    See what "Nihilists" are in other dictionaries:

    Nihilists. A nihilist (from Latin nihil “nothing”: a person who does not recognize anything, a denier) is a socio-political and literary term widely used in Russian journalism and fiction in the 60s. In the novel of I. S. Turgenev ... ... Literary Encyclopedia

    - (from the Latin nihil nothing), people who deny generally accepted spiritual values, moral standards, forms of social life. In Russia, the term became widespread after the appearance of the novel by I. S. Turgenev. Fathers and Sons (1862). The publicists ... ... Russian history

    People who deny the historical foundations of modern life (family, religion, etc.). This nickname, launched by Turgenev, soon lost its original meaning and vulgarized. Dictionary of foreign words included in the Russian language. Pavlenkov F ... Dictionary of foreign words of the Russian language

    Nihilism (nihilists) What does (nihilism) consist of? In the rejection of the providence of God and the benefits that the powers that be bring. disrespect, disrespect, destruction and disobedience. They deny the reality, respect the strong with the shaky, and the carrier and the weak for ... ...

    Nihilists - (Latin nihil - nothing), in Russia from the 2nd half of the XIX century. people who denied generally accepted values: ideals, moral standards, culture ... Russian statehood in terms. IX - beginning of XX century

    Nihilists. (Deniers) - The political trend prevalent in Russia in the 1860s. Many supporters of nihilism resorted to the methods of terror against the tsarist reaction and entered the populist movement of the 1870s ... The historical reference of the Russian Marxist

    - (English Vera, or, The Nihilists) Oscar Wilde's first melodramatic play of 1880. The play was dedicated to the Russian terrorist and revolutionary Vera Zasulich. The premiere was held in 1881 at the Adelphi Theater, but on December 17th ... ... Wikipedia

    Wed What does (nihilism) consist of? In the rejection of the providence of God and the benefits that the powers that be bring. disrespect, disrespect, destruction and disobedience. They deny the reality, respect the strong with the shaky, and the carrier and the weak give out as being and the strong ... Michelson’s Big explanatory and phraseological dictionary

    Nihilism (from nihil nothing) is a direction or teaching that claims that there is nothing higher than the sensual, that all life and reality is limited only by phenomena. This is nihilism, as it were theoretical. In the moral ... ... Handbook of heresies, sects and schisms

    As soon as I heard only the word "nihilist", my brain obediently sang a song line in the voice of Lyapis Trubetskoy, "Nihilist - tu-ru-tu-tu-tu, evil worm - tu-ru-tu-tu ..." However, how much do not laugh, explain the meaning A “nihilist” term is needed. So, let's begin.

    The Internet on a request for nihilists issued a bunch of links. Like any phenomenon, nihilism is described in few neutral ways: one admires secretly, the other openly despises.In many articles, only the definition of the term “nihilist” was not biased: “From the Latin word“ nihil ”-“ nothing ”is the name of a person expressing his position in the denial of the meaningfulness of human existence, the significance of generally accepted and cultural values, and the non-recognition of any authority. Yes, and then distorted. For comparison, the same word is in Ushakov’s explanatory dictionary: “A nihilist is the name of a person of a progressive, radical democratic way of thinking towards established traditions and the ideology of a noble-bourgeois society.” A kind of good uncle against the bourgeoisie. Although, this bias is understandable - a dictionary was published in Soviet times, in the pre-war one thousand nine hundred and forty years. In fact, nihilism for the first time showed its face indifferent to everything in the year one thousand one hundred and seventy-nine. Then this teaching was anathematized with a light hand by Pope Alexander II and did not receive much distribution. And all because the nihilists of that time rejected the human nature of Jesus Christ.

    The second time nihilism flashed in Western philosophy. It was used by the German writer and philosopher F. G. Jacobi. After him, the concept began to use many philosophers. The famous F. Nietzsche, for example, understood by the term “nihilism” the recognition of the illusory nature of the Christian idea of ​​God “in heaven” (recall the phrase: “God is dead!”) And the idea of ​​progress, which he also considered a version of religion. In order to most clearly understand the nihilistic movement, you need to look at the statements that they adhere to:

    1) There is no reasonable evidence of a superior ruler or creator,

    2) “Real morality” does not exist,

    3) Life, in a certain sense, has no truth, and no action is objectively preferable to any other.

    Well, it would be just nihilism. But his adherents turned out to be amazingly indefatigable people, and created several varieties of their movement:

    1) Philosophical nihilism - claims that being has no objective meaning, reason, truth or value,

    2) Meriological nihilism - a position according to which objects consisting of parts do not exist,

    3) Metaphysical nihilism is a philosophical theory according to which the existence of objects in reality is not necessary,

    4) Epistemological (what a word!) Nihilism - denial of knowledge,

    5) Moral nihilism is a metaetic idea that nothing is moral or immoral,

    6) Legal nihilism - an active or passive denial of the rights of the individual, as well as the norms and rules of behavior established by the state, which impede the progressive development of society and can become a source for committing illegal acts.

    In Russia, the word became popular only after the famous novel by I. S. Tugrenev “Fathers and Sons”, where the author named the main character, Yevgeny Bazarov, as the nihilist. The impression of a talented book made the word winged. Turgenev himself said that when he returned to Petersburg after the release of his novel - and this happened during the famous fires of St. Petersburg one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, - the word "nihilist" was already picked up by many, and the first phrase, escaped from the lips of the first acquaintance, what Turgenev saw was: “Look at what your nihilists are doing: they are burning Petersburg!”

    Honestly, I also need to express my, so to speak, author's position. And it seems to me that some types of nihilist movement are completely sucked out of the finger: the same metaphysical nihilism that immediately stumbles when confronted with science.

    Hello dear readers. Today we will talk about what constitutes nihilism, that these are in simple words. We will define this concept, find out which person can be called a nihilist. Let's talk about the positive and negative aspects of nihilism.

    Religious nihilism

    The statement that nihilism is a modern phenomenon will be true.One of its most popular types is religious nihilism. Under this term, it is customary to understand the uprising of rebellion against religion from the position of a selfish person, denial and negative attitude to the spiritual values ​​of society. Such a criticism of religion has its own specificity, expressed in spirituality, a pragmatic attitude towards life itself. Without exaggeration, a nihilist can be called a cynic, for whom there is nothing sacred. Such a person can defile religion because of his selfish goals.

    Social nihilism

    Social nihilism is a trend expressed in a variety of manifestations, among which:

    1. The rejection by certain sections of society of the existing course of reform.
    2. Failure to adopt a new way of life and new values.
    3. Dissatisfaction with innovations, changes.
    4. Social protests against various shock methods and transformations.
    5. Disagreement with different political decisions.
    6. Dislike (sometimes enmity) in relation to state institutions.
    7. Denial of Western patterns of behavior.

    What kind of nihilist is he today?

    Many philosophers are inclined to the idea that modern man in itself is already a nihilist to some extent, although the modern current of nihilism has already branched into other subspecies. Many people, not even knowing the essence of nihilism, sail their ship throughout their lives, which is called nihilism. The modern nihilist is a person who does not recognize any values, generally accepted norms and morality, does not bow to any will.

    Watch the video: What is NIHILISM? What does NIHILISM mean? NIHILISM meaning, definition & explanation (February 2020).

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