Chlamydia in men: symptoms, treatment regimens, effective drugs
Antibiotics are often used to treat infectious or advanced urethritis.
They vary depending on the nature of the disease, the course and dosage depend on its stage and condition of the patient.
One commonly used drug is Azithromycin, indispensable for the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis.
Features of the disease
Urethritis is called inflammation of the urethra or urethra. The cause of the disease can be a sexually transmitted or tuberculosis infection, an allergic reaction to food, medications or cosmetics, mechanical damage.
Urethritis is characterized by pain during urination, frequent false desires, discharge from the urethra, burning and itching, violation of the skin (ulcers, abrasions).
In men, urethritis is manifested rapidly, already at 2-4 days primary symptoms appear. After a few days, unpleasant sensations reach a maximum, the patient may appear swelling, body temperature rises.
In the absence of treatment or improperly selected therapy, the acute phase becomes chronic, which is difficult to treat. If the drug course is not observed or is interrupted, a relapse of the disease is possible.
Treatment depends on the nature of the disease. The patient undergoes a series of tests to identify the pathogen. Chlamydial urethritis is most often diagnosed, according to statistics, at least 5-10% of men are infected.
At risk are young, sexually active people who often prefer to change partners. All forms of urethritis are contagious and quickly transmitted sexually.
The main differences between urethritis and cystitis are described here.
Azithromycin for urethritis: what are its benefits?
The best drug for treating common chlamydial urethritis is Azithromycin. This is a semi-synthetic antibiotic from a subclass of azolides.
Compared with erythromycins, it has a lot of advantages:
- the drug is rapidly absorbed into the blood,
- has a prolonged action (up to 68 hours),
- penetrates well through cell membranes,
- resistant to acids and not destroyed in the gastric environment.
It is worth considering that Azithromycin is not a universal medicine. It is suitable for the treatment of chlamydial and microplasma urethritis, copes well with ureaplasma, treponema, spirochete Borrelia, but weakly affects enterococci. Less effective for the destruction of staphylococci and streptococci, for the treatment of urethritis of an appropriate nature it is better to use erythromycin.
The drug is available in the form of coated tablets or capsules, packaged in blisters.
The main active substance is azithromycin dihydrate. The same component is included in other pharmacy drugs. The most popular is Sumamed, which is a powder for the preparation of an aqueous suspension.
The course of use and the effectiveness of the drug
Azithromycin is a first-line antibiotic, it is prescribed at the very beginning of the disease.
Before treatment, it is recommended to conduct a test for the sensitivity of microflora, it will help minimize side effects.
- Most often, a single dose of 0.5 g is prescribed (1 standard tablet or capsule) for 2-3 days.
- The drug should be washed down with a large amount of clean still water (at least 1 cup).
- Sometimes urologists recommend another treatment option - 2 tablets of 0.5 g are taken once, after which there is a break.
The best option for taking the drug is an hour before meals or 2 hours after it. However, for some diseases of the stomach, the doctor may recommend taking tablets with food. It slightly reduces the absorption rate of active substances, but it practically does not affect the effectiveness of the drug. When treating with azithromycin, citrus fruits, especially grapefruits, should not be consumed. The substances that make up their composition, in combination with the active components of the drug, inhibit the heart muscle.
Contraindications and side effects
Like other potent drugs, Azithromycin has a number of contraindications.
It is not recommended for use with:
- autoimmune diseases
- viral infections
- renal and liver failure,
- severe forms of chronic disease,
- heart failure
- individual allergic reaction to the drug.
Patients taking Azithromycin are not recommended to drive or work with various mechanisms. The drug can slow down the reaction and affect the concentration of attention.
During treatment, it is recommended that the dosage prescribed by the doctor be strictly observed. Exceeding the required dose can cause headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, diarrhea, or constipation. In some cases, there is a temporary decrease in visual acuity or skin rash, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and increased anxiety. After discontinuation of the drug, all unpleasant symptoms disappear.
How to supplement treatment?
Antibiotics actively influence the pathogenic flora, killing already existing pathogenic bacteria and preventing the penetration of new ones. However, these drugs have a negative effect on the body: they weaken the immune system, contribute to the occurrence of fungal infections.
The use of complementary drugs will help to avoid negative effects: antimycotic tablets, vitamin complexes, immunomodulators.
Patients are recommended a therapeutic diet that excludes heavy, fatty, fried foods. Vegetables and fruits, cereals and soups, dairy products, lean meat and sea fish will help to improve the patient's condition.
When treating with antibiotics, it is necessary to completely abandon alcohol. Ethyl alcohol reduces the effectiveness of the drug and worsens the condition of the patient. The menu can be supplemented with complexes with vitamins B, A, E and C, as well as preparations of iron, potassium, magnesium and zinc.
Good hygiene is very important.. External preparations will help accelerate recovery: industrial ointments, gels and creams, rectal suppositories. Actively used decoctions of medicinal herbs, suitable for oral administration, baths, compresses, douching and lotions.
Everything about the treatment of the disease at home is in this publication.
Treatment of urethritis with azithromycin should be carried out under the supervision of a doctor. The drug is prescribed at the very beginning of the disease and has a detrimental effect on pathogenic microflora. After the first course, immunostimulating and antifungal drugs are prescribed to reduce the negative consequences of taking antibiotics.
Causative agent of the disease
The pathogen of chlamydia in men and women is the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. She is motionless and lives inside cells. About one million people become infected with it annually, of which more than half are men. The total number of cases approaching a billion, the male gender prevails. According to statistics, from 5 to 15% of people who have sex are ill with chlamydia.
Infection is dangerous with its manifestations and complications, these include:
- inflammation of the testicle and its appendages,
- narrowing of the urethra,
- joint damage
- inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes,
- pelvic pain.
Another danger of chlamydia is the ability to transfer to L-forms, i.e. into a sleeping state. In this case, taking antibiotics does not have a significant effect on the pathogen, the infection remains in the host. With weakening of the immune system, the disease worsens.
There are 9 types of chlamydia, a third of them are a threat to human health:
- Chlamydia trachomatis. Causes STDs.
- Chlamydia pneumonia. When ingested, it attacks the lungs, causing pneumonia, especially in children, young people and in crowded groups (nursing homes, schools, prisons, etc.).
- Chlamydia psittaci. Transmitted from parrots. Causes pneumonitis - a specific pneumonia.
All chlamydia can occur not only in the form of a pronounced infectious process, but also subclinically, i.e. with few symptoms.
Causes of occurrence
Chlamydia infection can be caused by:
- Lack of barrier methods during sexual intercourse with an "unverified partner."
- Decrease in protective reserves of the body (in immunodeficiency states).
- The latent course of the disease (without clinical signs) in the partner.
The mechanism of development of chlamydia in men
Once in the human body, chlamydia parasitizes in the cells of the internal genital organs, vessel walls, the membrane of the eyes, pharynx, and rectum. Chlamydia actively uses parts of the host cells for its life, causing inflammation.
Due to this lifestyle of the microorganism, the symptoms of the disease at the beginning are nonspecific, which complicates the diagnosis.
Signs of chlamydia in men can be traced to specific symptoms.
The disease is characterized by:
- Itching in the urethra.
- Burning, pain during urination (urine may have a cloudy tint).
- Light, almost colorless discharge from the urethra.
- Frequent urination.
- Redness and slight swelling in the area of the outlet of the urethra.
- Swelling, sharp pain, local temperature increase in the scrotum.
- Pain in the scrotum, rectum.
- Pain in the lumbar and sacral regions, and even in the lower extremities (along the sciatic nerve).
- Reuters triad is possible: urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis. One of the large joints is usually affected, most often on the one hand. (e.g. knee, hip, or ankle).
- Discomfort during an act of defecation (typical for lesions of the rectum and prostate).
Reuters triad is possible: urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis. One of the large joints (for example, knee, hip or ankle) is usually affected unilaterally. Often the patient is only concerned about the joints and he turns to therapists, rheumatologists. Therefore, it is important to always remember that chlamydia can affect not only the urogenital tract, but also joints.
Diagnosis of the disease
- Chlamydia can be detected using the following methods:
- PCR - basic analysis, sensitivity and specificity - 100%. Finds the DNA of the pathogen. The deadline is 2-3 days. For him, a swab from the urethra or scraping from the throat is taken.
- ELISA - determination of antibodies in the blood secreted by the body in response to the introduction of chlamydia. Appear 10-20 days after infection. The accuracy is not more than 60%, due to the fact that antibodies persist for a long time after treatment and it is not always clear whether this is a new round of the disease or immune memory.
- The cultural method is sowing on nutrient media material obtained from scraping or smear. The most time-consuming and expensive, the results need to wait a few days. Determines the sensitivity of chlamydia to antibiotics for the selection of therapy.
- Immunofluorescence reaction is a complex method requiring the experience and professionalism of a performer. The material obtained by scraping or smear is stained, after which the bacteria begin to glow under the microscope. Accuracy is not more than 50%.
For effective treatment of chlamydia in men, it is necessary to influence the causative agent of the disease.
In the initial acute process, good results were shown by antibacterial drugs from the macrolide group (Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Josamycin, Midecamycin) and tetracyclines (Doxycycline).
However, treatment with drugs from a number of tetracycline antibiotics has several disadvantages:
- The course of treatment for 1 week does not allow to achieve the desired result. According to research, relapse occurs in 15-20% of cases with this treatment regimen.
- Lengthening the time of taking drugs up to 14 days is dangerous by the repeated development of infection in 15% of cases.
- Treatment for 21 days avoids relapses, since there is an effect on 7 cycles of development of the pathogen of infection. However, such a long-term regimen is inconvenient for patients: often there is a violation in taking antibiotics. Skipping tablets, the irregularity of their use can lead to the formation of resistance (resistance) of chlamydia to this drug. In addition, prolonged use of drugs can provoke the development of a fungal infection, as well as digestive tract dysbiosis. For the prevention of these complications, it is necessary to prescribe antifungal drugs (Nystatin, Levorin, Ketoconazole), as well as eubiotics (Linex).
Given the above disadvantages of tetracycline antibiotics, treatment with macrolides is most convenient.
Especially effective is the drug "Azithromycin" ("Sumamed").
Benefits of the drug «Azithromycin ":
- A convenient treatment regimen is a single dose of 1 g of Azithromycin.
- The effect of the drug lasts 10 days even after a single dose (this effect is created due to the half-life).
- A simple scheme provides 100% compliance with the recommendations of the doctor.
- "Azithromycin" persists for a long time in tissues affected by the inflammatory process.
- Low percentage of side effects.
- The antibiotic acts on intracellular pathogens due to the ability to accumulate inside the cells (in particular, phagocytes). This is very important in the treatment of chlamydia, since chlamydia is completely dependent on the host cell.
Treatment of chronic chlamydia
The chronic form of the disease is much more difficult to treat effectively and is dangerous when relapses occur.
Antibiotics from the tetracycline and macrolide group are also preferred.
The following treatment regimens are effective:
- Continuous use of "Doxycycline" at 200 mg 2 r / day for 28 days.
- The pulse therapy method consists in 3-fold administration of tetracyclines for 10 days with a break of 7 days. This scheme allows you to act on resistant intracellular strains of bacteria, affecting all development cycles.
- Acceptance of Azithromycin 500 mg 2 times a day for 5 days (or 7 days for a long, often recurring course of the disease).
Be sure to prescribe along with the use of etiotropic treatment:
- Eubiotikov (Linex, Bifiform)
- Anticancer drugs (Nystatin, Fluconazole).
- Immunomodulators (Polyoxdonium, Interferon-Alpha).
To prevent chlamydia, prevention will help:
- the use of barrier contraception,
- rejection of promiscuous sexual intercourse,
- annual routine examination of sexually active people, including - gay
- for complaints and suspected illness - an immediate appeal to a venereologist,
- rejection of intimate relationships during the treatment of chlamydia, otherwise you can infect a partner.
The consequences of chlamydial infection for men
In addition to pain in the affected organs and tissues, there are also long-term consequences:
- Chlamydial infection in 30% is the cause of male infertility.
- With a prolonged course of the disease without proper treatment, the formation of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is possible.
- Chlamydia can cause erectile dysfunction (when the infection spreads to the prostate).
Chlamydial infection is very "insidious", as in most cases it is almost asymptomatic or "masked" in the form of banal cystitis and urethritis. However, the consequences of this disease can be extremely serious.
The lack of timely treatment for chlamydia can cause irreversible changes in reproductive function (the development of infertility). For this reason, it is necessary to comply with the principles of “protected” sexual intercourse, and in case of alarming symptoms, be sure to consult a doctor to prescribe a competent and effective treatment.
Chlamydia - genital infection
The causative agent of the disease is the intracellular parasite of Chlamydia trachomatis. A microbial infection affects the cells of the genitourinary tract, the mucosa of the rectum, respiratory tract, eyes, and the lining of the vessels.
Chlamydia is transmitted through direct sexual contact. It is possible infection by contact-household means, for example, when using other people's towels.
Chlamydia is more susceptible to young men and women (18–25 years old) who have an active sex life.
Hidden course, minimal manifestations of infection at first - the features of this disease. Initial symptoms may appear two weeks after infection.
Chlamydia in men is accompanied by white discharge from the penis, burning sensation during urination. In about 5–6 out of 10 infected, the disease is asymptomatic.
The female body is more susceptible to chlamydial infection. The disease in the acute period is accompanied by general malaise, fever, pain in the back and stomach.
Purulent vaginal discharge appears (mostly white or yellow), burning during urination, pain and bleeding during intercourse.
Microbial pathogens are sensitive to Azithromycin and Doxycycline, these antibiotics are considered the drugs of choice for chlamydia.
Doxycycline is one of the first semi-synthetic tetracyclines. An outdated antibiotic is limited due to the emergence of a large number of resistant microbes, serious side effects.
Experts had doubts that a single dose of an antibiotic would do the trick. But studies have shown that the effectiveness of Azithromycin, in the absence of sexual contact during treatment, is 95%.
The antibiotic is a representative of modern azalides. Azithromycin blocks the synthesis of proteins in the cells of the causative agent of the disease, thereby stopping its reproduction, the spread of infection in the body.
This drug is more resistant to destruction by hydrochloric acid in the stomach, compared to other antibiotics.
The active substance after absorption in the small intestine enters the bloodstream. The concentration of the drug in plasma reaches its maximum value in just a few hours.
Advantages of azithromycin compared to other antibiotics:
- More accumulates in tissues affected by microbes, less in plasma.
- It is delayed in the body and continues to act even when the patient is no longer taking the medicine.
- The drug is relatively new, therefore pathogen resistance is less pronounced.
- There are a small number of contraindications for taking this antibiotic.
- Few serious side effects develop after treatment with the drug.
- Various dosage forms are produced - tablets, capsules, suspension.
- A short course of treatment for chlamydia.
A single dose of the drug is enough to create a concentration of azithromycin in the affected tissues, which is harmful to microbial pathogens.
With small doses of the drug, the risk of developing intestinal dysbiosis is lower. Disturbance of microflora in the form of a change in the balance between "bad" and "good" bacteria in the digestive tract occurs with prolonged and uncontrolled antibiotic treatment.
In more detail about the treatment of chlamydia with azithromycin in the video below:
Due to the short period of therapy, the likelihood of toxic and allergenic effects of the drug is reduced.
Azithromycin is an improved erythromycin. If the causative agents of the disease are resistant to the latter, then they are immune to the former. This feature is called cross-resistance.
Features of azithromycin
Azithromycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that belongs to the macrolide group. The main active ingredient is the substance of the same name - a semi-synthetic antibiotic, the first of a subclass of azalides.
Azithromycin is actively used to treat various infectious diseases, since the drug has a pronounced bactericidal effect. The main directions of therapy: colds, skin and genital infections. The advantage of the drug is a short list of possible side effects.
Typically, the drug is prescribed in a short course and in small doses, which allows it to be attributed to a new generation of antibiotics.
Azithromycin is able to destroy colonies of streptococci (G, CF), gram-positive cocci, anaerobic microbes and gram-negative microorganisms. The bactericidal properties of the drug are well disclosed in the treatment of diseases caused by pale treponema, chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas and Borrelia spirochete.
Prescribe the drug only after laboratory tests. In cases where different bacteria cause the disease, it is often required to combine Azithromycin with antibiotics of other groups.
The active substances of the drug are rapidly absorbed into the blood, and in full, since azithromycin is resistant to the acidic environment of the stomach. The maximum concentration of components in the plasma is achieved 2-3 hours after administration.
The drug is able to penetrate into any tissues and fluids, so it continues to fight pathogenic microorganisms for a long time (about a week). This property of the drug makes it possible to treat many diseases with the help of Azithromycin, excluding relapses. Active substances do not violate the natural microflora, which makes the drug safe for different categories of patients.
Manifestations and detection of chlamydia
Chlamydia can occur in acute or chronic form, and also have an asymptomatic course. In addition, this disease has a number of serious complications arising from the absence of treatment or improperly selected drug therapy (including with self-medication).
Depending on gender and form, the disease occurs in such options:
|Acute form||Chronic form|
|Men||There is a slight increase in body temperature, increased fatigue and general weakness. There are discharge from the urethra of a vitreous, watery or mucopurulent character, especially after a night's sleep. In the process of urination, a man can feel a burning sensation and itching, observe a muddy first portion of urine. Often there is swelling and redness of the external opening of the urethra, spotting during ejaculation or urination. Pain in the lower back and groin are present.||Symptoms in a chronic form occur at the stage of exacerbation. During remission, minor pulling pains in the groin and lower back, a rare occurrence of itching and burning during urination are possible.|
|Women||Women have low-grade fever, weakness and a feeling of fatigue. Chlamydia in the female body can cause inflammation of the urethra, appendages, uterus and fallopian tubes, endometrium, etc. The disease is accompanied by pulling pains in the lower abdomen and lower back, pain during urination, burning, itching and a feeling of excessive moisture in the genital area. In addition, urination becomes more frequent, the menstrual cycle is disrupted, mucopurulent discharge with an unpleasant odor occurs.||In more than 20% of cases, the chronic form is asymptomatic. In other cases, periods of exacerbation are accompanied by symptoms of varying severity.|
In order to diagnose a disease, there are a large number of effective methods. When choosing a research method, the doctor takes into account its specific purpose: it is necessary to establish the presence of the pathogen, or also the phase of the disease.
The most commonly used types of tests are:
The price of these diagnostic methods is quite diverse, the lowest cost has a microscopic analysis (general smear), but accordingly the least informative. The most effective is the analysis of PCR and ELISA, their indicators reach 100% and 90%, respectively.
Before proceeding with treatment with the drug, the doctor should conduct a survey and examination of the patient, which should include an analysis of sensitivity to antibiotics.
Treatment of chlamydia with azithromycin is successful, since the drug has the ability to get inside the affected cells and accumulate there, which increases the effectiveness of the fight against the pathogen. This tool belongs to the group of macrolides and has the ability to expand antimicrobial properties and be resistant to acids.
Standard instructions for the use of azithromycin look like this:
- In the initial stage of the disease, it is recommended to use 1 tablet of the drug 1 time per day, 2 hours before meals.
- Sluggish chlamydia is treated with the use of an antibiotic in this way: on the first day - 1 gram, on days 2 and 3, 500 mg each, from days 4 to 7, 250 mg.
In other cases, alternative treatment regimens are possible:
- How to take azithromycin for chlamydia in men or women if the degree of prescription of the disease is not established and there are no concomitant complications? In this case, take 1 g of the drug on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day of treatment or 1 g per week for two weeks.
- How to take azithromycin for chlamydia in women or men in case of complicated chronic infection? The use of azithromycin 500 mg per day 1 time per week for 3 months is recommended. Or an alternative treatment regimen in which azithromycin is taken 1 g on the 1st, 7th and 14th day of the course.
Note! An important role in the treatment of chlamydia with azithromycin is played by the patient's compliance with the doctor's recommendations. According to various sources, about 60-90% of patients independently change the regimen of the drug or stop taking it. The consequence of such actions is the persistence of the pathogen, increasing its resistance to antibiotics, as well as relapse of the disease.
Good evening. Tell me, if azithromycin is not suitable for the treatment of chlamydia, can a specialist prescribe me a drug from any other group of antibiotics?
Hello. Of course, for patients who should not take azithromycin, there are a number of alternative drugs. This may be tetracycline in a dosage of 500 mg, lomefloxacin 600 mg, roxithromycin 150 mg or ciprofloxacin 0.5 g. The duration of treatment and the frequency of administration in such cases is determined by the attending physician.
The disease is characterized by the development of an inflammatory process in the urethra. Most often, the disease has an infectious etiology. Allergic, toxic pathology is less often diagnosed. Symptoms of urethritis in women and in the strong half of humanity are burning, pain at the time of urination, pain, the production of pathological discharge.
Among all drugs for urethritis, the drug to which sensitivity is detected in the pathogen is selected. In this regard, diagnosis plays a large role in ensuring the patient's speedy recovery. At this stage, perform bacteriological analysis of a smear taken from the urethra, a study of the composition of urine.
Specialists pay attention to the fact that untimely or incorrect treatment of pathology provokes the spread of the inflammatory process to nearby organs. Bladder diseases develop with urethritis in women or the prostate, testicles in men.
The causes of urethritis in women and men were divided into two groups:
- The primary infection enters the body after the catheter is inserted into the urinary canal, various injuries, unprotected sexual contact.
- Secondary penetration of the infection into the urethra occurs through adjacent organs of the pelvis. In this case, the root cause of the development of pathology are pyelonephritis, genital ailments, prostatitis, cystitis.
Urethritis of an infectious nature was divided into a specific and non-specific form. In the first case, pathogens are chlamydia, gonococcus, trichomonas, mycoplasma, ureaplasma. Nonspecific urethritis provokes opportunistic organisms (Proteus, E. coli, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus).
The basic principles of treatment
Drug treatment of bacterial urethritis necessarily involves taking antibiotics. Choosing the most effective drug is quite difficult. Difficulties in determining the substance that quickly and permanently destroys the urethritis pathogen are as follows:
- Recently, microorganisms have developed resistance (resistance) to antibacterial drugs.
- The polyetiology of infectious urethritis. In this case, there are several pathogens of inflammation of the urethra.
- The percentage of chronic urethritis increased. Pathology is characterized by an almost latent course of the disease.
Important! Effective treatment of urethritis is provided only by an integrated approach to solving the problem. The antibacterial drug must be powerful enough to quickly stop the inflammation. Its effect is enhanced by prescribing an uroantiseptic agent (Uronefron, Trinefron, Urolesan).
In the treatment of urethritis, drugs in the form of tablets or capsules are used. There is no need to inject an antibiotic, since the disease does not interfere with the good absorption of active components into the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract.
Why is azithromycin used?
Previously, urethritis was treated with drugs of the penicillin and fluoroquinol groups. In view of the fact that most pathogenic microorganisms have acquired resistance to them, tablets with these two active components are not prescribed.
When drawing up a treatment regimen, the factor of the frequent combination of two pathogens of urethritis is taken into account (chlamydia is associated with gonococci). To destroy these microorganisms, Azithromycin is often used along with Ceftriaxone. The first drug belongs to the macrolide group and is famous for its effectiveness against chlamydia. In some cases, it is advisable to replace the macrolides with tetracyclines. Preference is given for urethritis to doxycycline tablets.
Treatment of non-gonococcal pathology is carried out with one antibacterial drug. If there are no contraindications in the patient, Azithromycin is prescribed. This drug is highly active in the destruction of most microorganisms that provoke urethritis. In this case, an increase in the dose of the antibiotic Azithromycin (if compared with acute therapy) is practiced. It is allowed to replace the medication with Doxycycline with urethritis of a non-gonococcal etiology. But it requires a more frequent intake and duration of the course (7 days).
The trichomonas form is stopped by antibiotics of the antiprotozoal group. It can be Secnidazole or Metronidazole. But, in this case, it is advisable to add Doxycycline or Azithromycin.
With urethritis in men and women, the doctor determines the dosage and duration of therapy. Only in this case can a good forecast be expected. Despite the high activity of Azithromycin against urethritis pathogens, improper use will not only not cure the disease, but will also aggravate inflammation. Microorganisms will become resistant to the active substance of the drug, and the pathology will transform into a chronic stage.
If studies have shown the advisability of prescribing Azithromycin for urethritis, the patient has no contraindications to it, then the tablets are drunk for 2 to 3 days.The doctor recommends a single dose of 0, 5 g. At the discretion of the doctor, the scheme may be changed. Take 2 tablets at once (0.5 g each) once a day. Take a break the next day. Then the patient still drinks 2 tablets of Azithromycin.
Urethritis in women is much more likely to occur in a chronic form. This is due to the anatomical features of the genitourinary organs. Then the disease requires longer therapy and a careful selection of concomitant drugs.
The antibiotic in question is recommended to be drunk with a large amount of liquid (still water) an hour before a meal or 2 hours after a meal. Patients suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are allowed to drink tablets during lunch. This will reduce their negative effect on the tissues of the stomach.
If azithromycin for urethritis is prescribed at the beginning of the onset of the disease, the drug Doxycycline is used regardless of the stage of the disease. Even if the patient did not contact the doctor on time, therapy with this antibiotic is quite effective.
The dosage of taking the medicine, the duration of the course, is determined by the doctor for each patient individually. This will allow to completely destroy the urogenital infection without unpleasant consequences. On average, take Doxycycline 1 tablet in the morning and evening. And the duration of therapy ranges from 1 to 2 weeks.
Please note that treatment with any antibacterial agent negatively affects the formation of bone-dentin cells. That is why, to make up for the loss, experts recommend additionally using preparations containing calcium and vitamin D.
Like all antibacterial drugs, taking Azithromycin can trigger a number of unpleasant side effects. By following all the doctor’s instructions during treatment of urethritis, the patient reduces the likelihood of the following situations.
- Discomfort, stomach pain.
- Dry mouth.
- Taste of bitterness.
The listed symptoms mainly occur when the dosage is exceeded. Therefore, her doctor determines, taking into account the clinical picture, body weight, age and other characteristics of the patient.
Among the rare side effects, the instructions indicate disorders of the nervous system, namely a feeling of anxiety or, conversely, drowsiness. There have been cases of decreased vision and loss of appetite. On the part of the immune system, side effects are extremely rarely manifested by allergic reactions (rash, itching, swelling of the tissues).
Experts draw attention to the fact that in case of side effects, taking Azithromycin for urethritis should be discontinued. Then you need to consult your doctor, describing the symptoms. Usually, adverse reactions disappear on their own after stopping the antibiotic.
The antibiotic has the most pronounced cumulative ability among all antibacterial drugs. With microbial inflammation, active substances settle in the organs of the reproductive system, gastrointestinal mucosa and lungs, prostate gland and urethra.
Macrolides persistently accumulate in the cytoplasm and phagolysosomes - the habitat of chlamydia, mycoplasmas and legionella. Namely, these microorganisms have recently become increasingly the cause of urethritis and prostatitis.
The great advantage of azithromycin is its ability to suppress the multiplication of atypical and intracellular pathogens, which are insensitive to most antibiotics. Also, the drug is widely used in the treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
Among all macrolides, Azithromycin has the greatest degree of penetration into white blood cells, which increases anti-infection protection. Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and mucoregulatory drugs have been proven clinically and experimentally.
Due to the unique ability to accumulate in tissues, Azithromycin in short courses is most often prescribed for sexually transmitted infections.
Azithromycin is one of the few antibiotics allowed for children and pregnant women (due to low toxicity). It is widely used to prevent inflammation of the pelvic organs.
Often prescribed for such diseases:
- inflammatory processes in the upper and lower respiratory tract, as well as diseases of the ENT organs (sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, pneumonia, bronchitis),
- infections of soft tissues and skin (erysipelas, dermatosis, impetigo),
- acute infections that most often occur in children (measles, scarlet fever),
- inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system,
- Lyme disease.
Sometimes this antibiotic is prescribed for chancroid, non-gonococcal urethritis and inguinal granuloma. In severe infections, intravenous administration of the drug is possible.
Standard Reception Scheme
The drug should be taken once a day. You need to choose the time one hour before or after a meal. The medicine does not cause side effects from the digestive system, however, the doctor should warn about the presence of gastrointestinal diseases.
The standard regimen for taking azithromycin for infection:
- One tablet (500 mg) or two tablets (250 mg each) once on the first day.
- 250 mg daily from the second to the fifth / seventh day.
- Separate pathologies are treated with a single dose of 500 mg of an antibiotic (gonorrhea).
- Three days at 500 mg per day for intestinal infections.
You can not take uncontrolled Azithromycin for sexually transmitted infections and colds.
In recent years, complications of urogenital infections (prostatitis, urethritis, epididymitis) are treated with a course of 1-7-14 at 1 g per day. Usually, chlamydia combined with other microorganisms become the cause of urogenital infection. This treatment regimen (pulse therapy) can reduce the number of relapses to 1.2% in men and 2.5% in women. A similar effect is not feasible by any other macrolides or tetracyclines.
Only laboratory diagnostics can determine the correct dosage, otherwise the treatment will be ineffective or even fatal. Incorrect self-medication leads to the fact that the symptoms are "washed away" and complicates the diagnosis of the true cause of the disease.
Azithromycin for chlamydia
Chlamydia therapy may include various drugs. The main ones are macrolides, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines. Azithromycin is a leader in the treatment of chlamydial infections.
In the treatment of chlamydia, monotherapy is assumed. This is due to the fact that the active substances do not always interact adequately with other drugs, accumulating in the affected tissues (antimicrobials are acceptable). However, it should be remembered that taking exclusively Azithromycin is permissible only at the initial stage of development of chlamydia.
Even the standard dosage and dosage regimen indicated in the instructions can be dangerous. With improper treatment of chlamydia, the disease becomes chronic. Self-medication of antibiotic infections often leads to complications.
Recommended regimen of azithromycin for chlamydia:
- At an early stage, take a tablet (1 g) per day two hours before meals.
- With mild symptoms, drink one tablet on the first day, then 0.5 g for another two to three days. From the fourth to the seventh days, 0.25 g is prescribed.
The patient should receive approximately 3 g of azithromycin per week. Often this is enough to adequately affect chlamydia. The scheme is acceptable for both women and men, but you should also consult a doctor on this issue. In the treatment of chlamydia with Azithromycin, some side effects can be noted: diarrhea, allergic rash, drowsiness, tinnitus, rarely chest pain.
Treatment of ureaplasmosis
Therapy of ureaplasmosis begins only after analysis for Trichomonas. The causative agent of the disease - ureaplasma - is able to live inside these microorganisms, using them as protection against antibiotics. Analysis results help you choose the right treatment regimen.
Possible dosages of azithromycin with ureaplasmosis:
- Before treatment with antibiotics, an injection course of immunomodulators should be started. Cycloferon is usually prescribed (once every two days intramuscularly). Injections should be continued during antibiotic therapy.
- The second stage is bactericidal antibiotics. For these purposes, Oflox is prescribed (400 mg in the first two days in the morning and in the evening, the rest days 200 mg).
- After a course of bactericidal agents, Azithromycin is prescribed (in the first six days and a half hours before breakfast, 1 g of the drug, a break of five days, again 1 g, a break, the third dose of 1 g).
Therapy of ureaplasmosis with azithromycin takes 15-16 days. Often along with an antibiotic, antifungal agents of 150-400 mg are prescribed two to three times a day. After a course of antibiotics, rehabilitation therapy should be carried out, the work of the digestive tract and liver should be normalized. Usually it lasts two weeks, includes one drug per tablet per day. Means for strengthening the liver are prescribed for three doses per day before meals.
Antibiotic Urethritis Therapy
With inflammation of the urethra, antibiotics are the most effective. Azithromycin is considered one of the best in the treatment of urethritis.
The benefits of this antibiotic:
- ability to cross cell membranes,
- rapid absorption and accumulation in tissues,
- prolonged effect (long-lasting),
- resistance to acidic environment.
In urethritis, this antibiotic is effective because of its ability to inhibit protein synthesis in pathogenic microorganisms. Small doses of the antibiotic can slow down the growth and reproduction of bacteria, and high doses can destroy colonies and prevent recurrence of urethral inflammation.
Azithromycin is the best choice for urethritis, which is caused by microplasma, chlamydia, spirochetes, treponemas and ureaplasmas. If the cause is streptococcus, staphylococcus or enterococcus, erythromycin should be taken.
With urethritis, the drug is usually prescribed at an early stage. The standard course includes the daily intake of one tablet in 0.5 g for three days. A course is possible that includes taking two tablets of 0.5 g once a day, maintaining the interval.
An antibiotic is best taken before meals, preferably one hour, or two hours after. However, with gastrointestinal disorders, the drug can be drunk with food. This reduces the speed of absorption, which, however, does not affect efficiency.
When treating with azithromycin, all citrus fruits are excluded from the diet: their components in combination with the active substances of the drug can interfere with the work of the heart muscle.
Azithromycin for ovarian inflammation
Adnexitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, which has an infectious nature. Most common among women 20-30 years old, and poses a serious danger to reproductive function.
With adnexitis, Azithromycin is indicated at the initial stage of the development of the disease, followed by a switch to other antibacterial agents (Amoxiclav). To maintain reproductive function, adnexitis treatment should be started in a timely manner.
The high effectiveness of the drug against various infections allows the treatment of acute adnexitis without test results. The efficiency of the drug makes it possible to avoid tube infertility.
The treatment regimen of adnexitis with Azithromycin:
- 500 mg once a week, combined with Amoxiclav.
- The combination of different drugs: Azithromycin, Metronidazole, Ceftriaxone.
Acute inflammation involves a short course of antibiotics. The drug goes well with antimicrobial agents; it is ineffective only in certain types of microbes.
Azithromycin after an abortion
After abortion, restorative therapy is prescribed.
Recovery from abortion includes:
- inflammation-preventing antibiotics
- combined oral contraceptives that restore the hormonal background,
- vitamin supplements that strengthen the immune system.
Antibiotics should be taken anyway. They protect the body from infections, so doctors prescribe strong drugs (Doxycycline, Metronidazole). Azithromycin is indicated on the day of abortion (1 g). Thus, the risk of infectious postabortion complications is reduced by 88%.
Can I give children
Children over 3 years old should take Azithromycin according to an individual scheme, which is based on the weight of the baby. For children less than 10 kg, the drug is prescribed extremely rarely (in case of danger to life), it is replaced with sparing analogues.
The safety of the drug for adult patients does not guarantee an adequate response of the child's body. Only the attending physician, based on the results of the tests, can prescribe Azithromycin to the child.
Complications, contraindications and side effects
It is believed that azithromycin can be an indirect cause of infertility, like many other strong antibiotics. Incorrect use of such drugs leads to the fact that the patient alleviates the symptoms, but does not cure a sexually transmitted disease.
The drug is not prescribed for patients who are allergic to antibiotics from the macrolide group. At risk are people with kidney failure, pregnant and lactating women. When carrying a child, the drug is prescribed only as a last resort, therefore, with symptoms of infection, you must always consult a doctor.
Side effects in the treatment with Azithromycin are very rare. Sometimes patients complain of dizziness, headaches, nervousness and symptoms of digestive upset, fatigue, vaginitis and nephritis.
Side effects are observed only in 1% of cases, 64% of which are mild. When Azithromycin is included in pregnancy therapy, there is no risk of fetal damage. The drug does not have a toxic effect on the unborn child.