Genitourinary system of men
Genitourinary System, or Genitourinary apparatus (lat. Apparatus Urogenitalis) - a complex of organs of the reproductive and urinary systems, anatomically, functionally and embryologically related. Some organs of the genitourinary system perform both reproductive and urinary functions (for example, the urethra in men).
The urinary systems in men and women consist of the same elements: in the abdominal cavity it is a pair of kidneys and a pair of ureters, and the pelvic urinary organs include the bladder and urethra, but due to differences in the reproductive roles of men and women, their pelvic organs in general, each of the sexes differs in structure and location.
In men, the urethra is longer and narrower than in women, since most of it passes through the body of the male penis, the reproductive function of which is the delivery of seminal fluid into the female tubular organ - the vagina hidden in the pelvic cavity. And in the male urethra, both the bladder and the excretory ducts of the gonads — the testicles that produce the male reproductive cells — the sperm, open. The male urethra passes through the absent prostate gland (prostate) in women, which adds the liquid component of the seminal fluid to the sperm. Urine and seminal fluid in men do not mix due to the special anatomical and physiological switching mechanism. With pathological growths of the prostate (its adenoma characteristic of the elderly), the upper part of the male urethra is compressed, and the outflow of urine from the bladder (urination) can be significantly impaired, and stagnation of the urine in the body leads to inflammation.
In women, the urethra serves only to excrete urine. It is shorter and wider than the male one and because of this it is easier to be infected from the outside, which can lead to the development of inflammation of the bladder (cystitis). The female urethra is hidden in the soft tissues of the pelvis, but its external opening is located in the external genital area near the external opening of the female reproductive system - the entrance to the vagina - on the threshold of the vagina. The entire vestibule is covered by the labia minora, normally freely sliding apart for urination, but with their functional fusion (synechia of the labia) caused by a deficiency of the female sex hormone, urination is difficult, which may require the help of a gynecologist. The proximity to each other in women of the external openings of the urethra, genitals and intestines can lead to their mutual infection and requires compliance with hygiene standards.
Congenital pathology common to the urinary and reproductive systems can also occur - for example, disorders of sexual differentiation (hermaphroditism or intersexuality), as well as epispadias or hypospadias - splitting of the wall of the urethra and penis or finding its external opening in atypical localization, which affects the functioning both subsystems.
The genitourinary system of a person is in the field of view of several medical disciplines. The functioning and diseases of the kidneys, urinary system in both sexes and their therapeutic treatment are called upon by nephrologists. as well as urologists, whose responsibilities include surgical treatment. The health and diseases of the male reproductive system are carried out by urologists, in particular, andrologists, and female gynecologists.
The main organ of the urinary system is the kidney, a paired organ located retroperitoneally in the lumbar region. Urine released from the kidney enters the renal calyx, renal pelvis, and then into the ureter, which opens into the bladder in the small pelvis. The urethra begins from the bladder, the structure of which varies in men and women.
The male reproductive system includes testicles with appendages, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate, urethra and bladder. The external genitalia of men are represented by the penis and scrotum.
The reproductive system of women includes the ovaries with appendages, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the vagina, the labia minora, the labia minora, and the clitoris. Between the labia minora there is the vestibule of the vagina, into which the external opening of the urethra and the opening of the vagina, as well as the ducts of the bartholin glands, are opened.
In the course of phylogenesis and embryogenesis, the structures of the genitourinary system undergo several stages of development. Urinary and reproductive organs develop from the mesoderm with the formation of intermediate embryonic structures, some of which are subsequently subjected to complete reduction. The stages of development are: pronephros - the forearm, mesonephros - the primary, trunk kidney, methanephros - the pelvic kidney. In addition, on both sides there are mesonephral (wolves) and paramesonephral (mullers) ducts. In the female embryo, mesonephros and mesonephral ducts are reduced, and the paramezonephral ducts develop intensively, resulting in the formation of fallopian tubes, as well as the epithelium of the uterus and vagina. In the male embryo, on the contrary, para-neonephral ducts are reduced, and mesonephros and mesonephral ducts are transformed into the vas deferens.
Despite the close anatomical relationship, the functions of the urinary and reproductive systems are significantly different. The purpose of the urinary system is the removal of decay products from the body. The kidneys serve to maintain the acid-base balance, form the biologically active substances necessary for the body, and contribute to the water-salt balance.
The organs that make up the reproductive system allow a man to carry out reproductive functions. The task of the gonads is the production of sex hormones, important not only for the reproduction of offspring, but also for the normal functioning of the whole organism.
For the production of hormones, the testes are mainly responsible. The normal hormonal background is extremely important for growth, development and vital functions, as sex hormones directly affect the following processes:
- · Height,
- · The formation of secondary sexual characteristics,
- · Sexual behavior of men,
- · The work of the nervous system.
The synthesis of hormones is carried out in the gonads, from where along with the blood they are delivered to all the organs on which they act. This process is a prerequisite for maintaining the work of the whole organism.
The genitourinary system of men includes the organs of education, urine output and the genital tract. It is impossible to clearly separate which organs enter the urinary system and which enter the genital, as some of them also perform reproductive functions and are involved in the process of urination or urination. Nevertheless, considering the structure of the urogenital system, it is possible to conditionally distinguish between the main components of both systems.
Urinary system anatomy
The urinary organs include kidneys. They filter the blood from harmful substances and excrete decay products in the urine. From the kidneys, urine drips into the ureters, from where it enters the bladder, where it accumulates until urination occurs.
Urea is emptied through the neck, which is connected to the urethra, which represents the tube located in the penis. Since the urethra is an organ in contact with the external environment, inflammatory processes often occur in it.
The structure of the kidneys is represented by a complex system. Plasma filtration occurs in intertwined glomeruli from blood vessels. Urine obtained during filtration exits through the tubules into the renal pelvis and enters the ureter.
The kidneys are in the abdominal cavity. Despite the fact that this body is paired, life support is possible with one kidney. In addition to filtration, the kidneys produce hormones involved in hematopoiesis and in the regulation of pressure in the arteries.
The anatomy of the ureters is presented in the form of tubules, on the one hand connected to the kidneys, on the other - with the bladder. The ureters are also a paired organ.
The structure of the urea resembles an inverted triangle, in which the neck and sphincter are located below, directing urine into the urethra. A feature of the bladder is the ability to stretch greatly if a large volume of urine accumulates in it.
This is due to the fact that its walls are composed of smooth muscle fibers, which lend themselves well to stretching. The anatomy of the muscles of the bladder allows the body to significantly decrease in an empty state and increase when filled.
The urethra is a very long narrow tube, the structure of which also allows some stretching. Through it, not only urine is excreted, but also sperm during ejaculation.
The described urinary and urinary organs are covered with a mucous membrane.
Its function is to protect the tissues of the organ located under it from the urinary environment. Infectious diseases develop in the mucous secretion of this membrane, which is a favorable environment for the life of bacteria.
Reproductive system anatomy
The genital or reproductive system in men includes the testes, appendages of the testes, spermatic cord and penis. The main function of these organs is spermatogenesis and outward transportation of sperm for fertilization.
Testes are organs whose main task is sperm production. Their education originates in the prenatal period. Initially, the formation occurs in the abdominal cavity.
In the process of development, the testes descend into the scrotum, which is the skin receptacle for these organs. Appendages of the testes perform the function of sperm accumulation for further maturation and advancement. The structure of the appendages is represented by a narrow spiral duct. The organs that combine the appendages with the urethra are called spermatic cord.
The penis is an organ that can change its size. This property is provided by the cavernous bodies of which it consists.
During an erection, the cavernous body is filled with blood like a sponge, which allows the penis to grow significantly. In the penis is the urethra, through which the sperm go out.
The organs of the male reproductive system are located mainly outside the abdominal cavity. An exception is the prostate, located below the urea. The prostate is an organ that produces a special secret that allows male sex cells to remain active.
It combines the urethra with the vas deferens and prevents the seminal fluid from entering the bladder during ejaculation. This function is also applicable to another process - during ejaculation, urine does not penetrate the urethra.
The most common cause of diseases of the genitourinary system are infections. Diseases that cause infections appear when organs are damaged by bacteria, parasites, fungi or viruses. Many diseases of this nature are transmitted through sexual contact.
Infections affect mainly the lower parts of the genitourinary system, which causes such symptoms: discomfort during urination, pain in the urethra, pain in the groin.
Similar symptoms often occur with inflammation and are a sign of an infection in the urinary tract. Suspecting the presence of the disease, you should immediately visit a doctor who will conduct an examination and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Diseases that cause infections occur in both acute and chronic form. The described symptoms are most pronounced in acute forms of the disease.
Transmission occurs through several routes:
- Unprotected sexual contact (the most common cause of the disease),
- · Ascending infections resulting from non-observance of personal hygiene rules,
- · Transition of infection of their other organs through blood vessels and with lymph.
Acute infections are divided into specific and non-specific. The former have more pronounced symptoms. With trichomoniasis and gonorrhea, the symptoms of the disease appear 3-4 days after infection. Nonspecific infections prevent the disease from manifesting so quickly, the clinical picture in this case becomes noticeable after a longer time.
The most common pathologies of the genitourinary system are: urethritis, prostatitis, cystitis and pyelonephritis.
Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra that occurs when an infection gets, hypothermia, or a decrease in immunity. The incubation period of this disease may vary depending on the pathogen. On average, it lasts from a week to a month. The main symptoms of inflammation of the urethra: burning sensation during urination, rapid urge.
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate. It manifests itself in acute and chronic form. If untreated, inflammation gives complications that affect a man’s ability to have offspring.
Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder. The onset of the disease may be due to infection or hypothermia. The main symptoms of the disease are frequent urination and false urge to it.
Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys. If there is no cure for the disease, the consequences can be very dangerous. Symptoms of the disease do not occur immediately, but with the development of pathology, there is a sharp severe pain in the lumbar region. If even slight discomfort appears in this area, you need to visit a doctor and undergo an examination.
Diagnosis and treatment of pathologies
In order to confirm the presence of the disease, identify its etiology and prescribe treatment, the doctor conducts a diagnosis. For diagnostic purposes, both instrumental and laboratory studies are used. Also widely used are hardware diagnostics, which include ultrasound, MRI, CT and X-ray.
MRI and CT are similar research methods that are often used in modern medicine. MRI allows you to view a multilayer image of those organs that are scanned. Images taken during an MRI are processed on a computer and saved to digital media.
Symptoms in which MRI is used for examination: urinary incontinence, discoloration, consistency or smell, spotting and pain during urination.
Since these symptoms are characteristic of many diseases, including dangerous ones, the doctor prescribes MRI to make sure the diagnosis is correct, to protect the patient and prescribe the appropriate treatment.
MRI is used for suspected cancer, polyps and other types of neoplasms.
Thanks to MRI tomography, a visual assessment of organ malfunctions becomes possible, which is not possible with other research methods. MRI does not require special training, it is enough to adhere to only two rules:
- A few days before the MRI, do not eat bread, fruits, vegetables, soda and milk drinks,
· In the evening before the study you need to put an enema.
You can do an MRI without observing the rules described, but the images will be of lower quality.
Another common diagnostic method is ultrasound. It is combined with instrumental examination methods. If a man complains of problems with the excretory organs or notices a decrease in reproductive function, an ultrasound is prescribed. The ultrasound procedure allows you to determine the important characteristics of the investigated organ and to find out the retention of urine.
Ultrasound of the organs is absolutely painless. Such a research method as ultrasound is indicated for patients with diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract of an inflammatory nature, with cystitis, as well as urinary incontinence. In case of enlargement of the prostate, using ultrasound, you can determine the cause of this and choose the appropriate treatment.
Ultrasound does not involve intravenous administration of a contrast agent, as with an urogram, so it does not give the kidneys an additional burden of medication. The ultrasound procedure has no contraindications, however, some factors can reduce the reliability of the result: the presence of scars and sutures on the examined organ and a catheter for urine diversion.
In order to minimize the measurement error during ultrasound, it is necessary to take the correct position during the examination.
For treatment, various methods of therapy are used based on the characteristics of the disease. As a rule, the doctor prescribes certain drugs to the patient.
If a man is worried about severe pain, analgesics and antispasmodics are recommended. In case of infection, the patient is prescribed antibiotics. The regimen for taking such funds is determined individually by the doctor.
Before prescribing medications (antibiotics, antiseptics, sulfonamides) and treating, the type of pathogen is determined using diagnostics and the course of the disease is monitored.
Depending on the severity of the pathology, the drugs can be administered intramuscularly, orally or intravenously.
For antibacterial treatment of the surface areas of the genital organs, such drugs as solutions of iodine and potassium permanganate, chlorhexidine are used. Antibiotic therapy is carried out by taking Ampicillin and Ceftazidime.
With inflammation of the urethra and bladder, proceeding without complications, Bactrim, Augmentin, and other tablets are prescribed. The treatment regimen for repeated infection is similar to therapy for initial infection.
If the disease has become chronic, it is recommended to use drugs for a long period (more than a month).
Using certain drugs, it is necessary to take into account the individual patient tolerance of individual components of drugs, therefore, treatment of pathologies of the genitourinary organs should be carried out only under the supervision of a specialist.
After the end of treatment of the pathology caused by the infectious agent, a bacteriological analysis of urine should be taken to confirm the result.
In some cases, after a course of treatment, the doctor prescribes general strengthening drugs that can restore the body's defenses and avoid relapse.
The genitourinary system performs vital functions, therefore, violations in its work negatively affect the general condition of the whole organism and require immediate elimination.
The risk of diseases of the excretory and genital organs increases in old age. To avoid the appearance of such pathologies, it is recommended to regularly monitor the state of health and annually undergo a routine examination by a doctor.
Dermatovenerologist, urologist. It specializes in the treatment of cystitis, prostatitis, phoniculitis, orchitis, syphilis and other diseases of the urinary and male reproductive systems.
The kidneys are a paired parenchymal organ of bean shape, they are located in the lumbar region. Urine is formed in the kidneys. The kidney parenchyma consists of many glomeruli and tubules. Plasma filtration occurs in the glomeruli, and in the tubules - a complex process of reverse absorption and the formation of that part of the plasma that should be excreted, that is, urine.
Urine enters the renal pelvis, and from there into the ureters.
The bladder has two functions: it accumulates urine and removes it. It looks like a tank of a triangular shape (in an unfilled state). The structure of its wall is such that it can be greatly stretched. The usual physiological accumulation of urine is about 200-300 g, with this volume there is already a urge to urinate. In some cases, the bladder can expand to a considerable size and hold up to several liters of urine.
The muscular wall of the bladder can not only stretch, but also contract. Urination is normal - this is an arbitrary act, that is, it is controlled by the brain. As soon as a person wants to urinate and there is an opportunity for this, a signal to the bladder comes from the brain. Its wall contracts and urine is pushed into the urethra.
In the bladder, urine accumulates and is excreted through the urethra
Features of the structure of the genitourinary system in women
This system performs many different functions: urinary, sexual, and also the most important for the female body - birth of children.
Women more often than men suffer diseases related to the genitourinary system due to the anatomical structure. Since their urinary tract is shorter, infections are easier to get inside.
- If such diseases are not treated on time, there may be a risk of developing it into a chronic form, which will undoubtedly affect the function of procreation.
- Female genitourinary system:
- Ovaries. It is in them that an ovum is formed during ovulation.
- Fallopian tubes - These are paired muscle tubes, inside which there are cilia of the epithelium, helping the egg to “get” to the uterus.
- Uterus - This is one of the main muscular genital organs of a woman, covered with a mucous membrane, to which an egg fertilized by a sperm is attached, and the embryo of the unborn child begins to emerge. If fertilization has not occurred, the mucous membrane is rejected and menstruation occurs.
- Vagina It is a muscular organ, a kind of sperm receiver, serves as the birth canal for the birth of offspring.
- Labia - they protect the body from harmful bacteria and infections.
- Clitoris - combines many nerve endings, which explains its sensitivity.
- Ureters. They are 2 paired tubes connecting the renal pelvis with the bladder.
- Kidney - This is a paired organ that acts as a filter and has the shape of a bean. If their work is disrupted, harmful substances accumulate and intoxication of the body occurs.
- Renal pelvis. They are located on the inside of the kidneys and have the shape of a funnel. It is in them that urine accumulates, and then enters the ureters.
- Bladder. Urine accumulates in it for its subsequent removal from the body. Tends to stretch. In men, it is round, and in women it is oval, as it is located under the uterus.
- Urethra Is the urethra. In women, it is shorter and wider than in men.
The female genitourinary system is regulated with the help of hormones, the violation of which leads to problems in the work of these organs.
The urethra is the endpoint of the urinary system. On it, urine is discharged. In men, the urethra is much longer than in women (its length is about 20 cm), it has several sections (prostatic, perineal and hanging). The external opening of the urethra opens on the glans penis.
The urethra serves not only to remove urine, but also to release sperm during intercourse. This is a body in direct contact with the environment. Basically, various microorganisms penetrate the male body through it, which can cause problems in the organs of both the urinary and reproductive systems. This way of spreading the infection is called ascending.
Various bacteria of the genitourinary system in women cause inflammatory processes of both gynecological and urological nature. All of them are dangerous for reproductive health and entail the development of chronic diseases, problems with urination, and also increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy and the diagnosis of infertility.
The reasons for the development of diseases of this system can be:
- Gastrointestinal diseases.
- Viral and bacterial, as well as fungal infections.
- Hypothermia, frequent stressful conditions.
- Disorders in the functioning of the thyroid gland, diabetes.
The main diseases of the female genitourinary system include:
This is a bladder disease characterized by symptoms such as: pain and burning sensation during urination, as well as in the lower back, turbid urine, poor health. Cystitis occurs due to E. coli, which enters the vagina from the anus. Possible infection after unprotected sex with an already ill partner.
The disease affects the urinary canal, vagina and cervix due to the woman’s weak immunity, is sexually transmitted and manifests itself in the form of various symptoms: girdle pain of the abdomen and lower back, itching and burning of the external genital organs, pain during sex, mucous discharge.
It arises as a result of unprotected intercourse and is manifested by pain when having sex, secretions that have an unpleasant smell, severe pains in the lower abdomen. Both partners usually need treatment.
One of the most common diseases of the female genitourinary system, characterized by burning and itching of the external genital organs, cheesy discharge with an acidic smell. Thrush is most often a symptom of a more serious disease in this area.
This is a serious disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. A person becomes infected from a sexual partner during unprotected sex.
Symptoms: pain covering all organs of the genitourinary system, discharge with pus and mucus, having an unpleasant odor, fever and general weakness.
Vaginitis, or colpitis, manifests itself in the form of inflammation of the vaginal mucosa and is expressed by such symptoms as burning and itching, discharge with a strange color and pungent odor, as well as frequent urination. The disease itself is quickly treated, but if treatment is not started in a timely manner, it can develop into a more serious form.
A fairly common gynecological disease, which is a pink or red spot on the cervix, is asymptomatic. But, with a negligent attitude towards him, the risk of cancer is increased. There is erosion as a consequence of a past illness of this area or may be congenital (pseudo-erosion).
Infection with this disease occurs during unprotected intercourse and is manifested by various symptoms at different stages.
So, in the first stages, ulcers form on the genitals and cervix, lymph nodes increase, body temperature rises, severe headaches disturb.
In the subsequent stages, the symptoms and consequences are much more dangerous. Immediate treatment is required for both partners.
The listed diseases are the main ones in a huge spectrum of diseases of the genitourinary system, and in order not to take an immeasurable amount of medicines for treatment in the future, you need to take care of your health in advance and take preventive measures.
It is much easier to avoid an ailment than to treat an existing problem, therefore it is important to follow some rules to maintain health:
- Do not overcool the body. Underwear is recommended to choose from natural materials and comfortable, not compressing the genitals.
- With the constant use of daily pads, it is imperative to monitor their expiration date.
- Personal hygiene is a must.
- Do not have sex with a full bladder - this contributes to the spread of infections.
- Sports and a non-sedentary lifestyle will help protect the body from unwanted diseases.
- When intercourse, it is unconditionally necessary to use contraception.
These simple rules will help to “bypass" unwanted diseases, but, at the first symptomatology, you need to immediately consult a doctor for timely treatment. The sooner you start it, the more effective it will be.
What organs the genitourinary system consists of and what symptoms indicate a disease
The genitourinary system consists of the genitals and urinary organs.
Urinary organs include:
The main function of the urinary organs is the excretion of metabolic products. The following signs indicate that a pathological process is taking place in the body:
- clouding of urine, the presence of pus, blood,
- pain (pulling, sharp, aching, etc.) in the lumbar region, abdomen, genitals,
- dysuria (rapid, involuntary, painful, difficult, and other disorders of urination),
- worsening of well-being.
The reproductive system of women and men
|Female genitals||Male genital organs|
|ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina||large and small labia, clitoris, pubis||testicles, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland||scrotum, penis|
Female genitals are responsible for the conception and bearing of the fetus, male - for reproductive function (reproduction).
The fact that a pathological process proceeds in the genitals is evidenced by the following symptoms:
- itching, irritation, redness, rash, ulcers, vesicles, pustules, scales, and other disturbing manifestations on the skin,
- suspicious discharge (color, smell, texture differs from normal),
- soreness, burning, pain in the genital area,
- inflammation of the lymph nodes,
- swelling of the genital organs, local temperature increase,
- dysuria, etc.
Various infections can cause diseases: viruses, bacteria, fungi. In order to timely identify the pathology (often it proceeds secretly) and prevent the development of complications, the prevention of genitourinary diseases is necessary.
Regular hygiene procedures are the key to the prevention of the genitourinary system. Care for the intimate area should be daily and correct.
In order not to violate the natural protective barrier of the microflora of the genital organs, purchase special products (gels, deodorants, wipes, soap, etc.) for intimate hygiene.
They gently care for the skin - they do not upset the acid-base balance and at the same time effectively prevent the entry of pathogens into the internal genital organs.
The functions of the male genitourinary system
- Excretion of metabolic products and compounds from food, drugs. In case of impaired renal function, poisoning of the body with poisonous substances accumulating in the blood occurs, fraught with death. It is through the kidneys that the vast majority of drug components are also excreted.
- Maintenance of water-salt and acid-base balances of the body.
- The process of reproduction of the species.
- The formation of male sexual behavior.
- The production of sex hormones, which, circulating through the body with blood, affect many processes in the body (metabolism, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, development and functioning of the male genital organs).
Infectious diseases of the genitourinary system of men
Infections can affect the urinary and genital organs in several ways:
- During sexual contact (especially unprotected or anal) with the carrier of infection (while some pathogens - gonococcus, chlamydia, etc. - are transmitted strictly through sexual contact, while others are also contact and airborne)
- When swimming in a pond.
- Getting into the blood from other inflamed organs (for example, ENT organs, oropharynx cavity and others)
- Getting from the surface of the body into the urethra and reaching the kidneys.
Of the most common infectious diseases of the urinary tract, there are:
- Glomerulonephritis infectious inflammation of the glomeruli and tubules of the kidneys. Symptoms - pain during urination and detection of blood clots in the urine.
- Pyelonephritis inflammation of the kidneys, has a bacterial nature. Leader in prevalence. The causative agent usually enters the kidneys from the bladder. It does not manifest immediately, usually the first symptom is a sharp pain in the back of the lower back.
- Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra. It can be caused by different pathogens (both specific types of chlamydia or gonococcus, and non-specific), the incubation period is highly variable depending on the nature of the infection. Symptoms of urethritis - increased urge to urinate and a burning sensation in the process.
- Prostatitis inflammation of the glandular tissue of the prostate. The earliest symptom is an increase in nightly rises for the purpose of urination. Over time, drawing pains in the scrotum and adjacent areas begin to make themselves felt. Urination with prostatitis is characterized by poor filling of the stream, intermittent. In the absence of timely treatment, prostatitis will give complications - prostate cancer, cessation of urination, inability to have sex. Treatment of prostatitis includes courses of antibiotics, hormonal drugs and smooth muscle relaxants.
- Cystitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. It is characterized by pain during urination, a false urge to it and a false sensation of fullness of the bladder at the end of the process. Due to the structural features of the urethra (short and wide, “convenient” for deep penetration of infections), women suffer from cystitis more often than men, however, the latter are not safe from it and should be careful about choosing a sexual partner and all the associated hygiene and safety requirements. The treatment of cystitis is based on antibiotic therapy.
- Orchitis - inflammation of the testes. Most often, the inflammatory process spreads to the testicles from nearby organs, but sometimes the cause is infection that affects the respiratory tract and ENT organs and reaches the testicles with blood flow. The earliest symptom is an increase in body temperature, reaching 40 degrees Celsius. Soon, burning pains in the area of affected organs manifest, aggravating with a change in body position. Treatment includes taking antibiotics (most often fluoroquinolones) and wearing a suspension - a supporting dressing.
- Vesiculitis - inflammation of the seminal vesicles. Often occurs against the background of a decrease in general immunity. Symptoms - pain in the corresponding area and blood inclusions in the ejaculate. A progressive inflammatory process is fraught with suppuration and the need for surgical intervention. Treatment includes antibiotics and drugs that increase immunity.
- Balanoposthitis inflammation and ulceration of the head of the penis. It is accompanied by burning pains, difficulty in the body performing both sexual and urinary functions. The treatment is complex. Ignoring the symptoms can lead to paraphimosis and the development of a malignant tumor.
- Colliculitis inflammation of the seed hill. Symptoms - blood in the ejaculate and urine, spontaneous ejaculation, difficulty with an erection.
- Epididymitis - inflammation of the epididymis. Often occurs simultaneously with orchitis. Symptoms - an increase, swelling and redness of the appendage in combination with a fever with a rise in temperature to 40 degrees. Possible complications are the development of a purulent process (then the intervention of a surgeon is indicated), obstruction of the duct.
Functional value of the system
The genitourinary system (urogenital apparatus) is a complex of organs that perform reproductive and urinary functions. Anatomically, all components are closely interconnected. The urinary and reproductive systems perform various functions, but at the same time complement each other. In case of violation of one of them, the second suffers. The main functions of the urinary system are:
- Removal from the body of harmful substances formed in the process of life. Most of the products come from the digestive system and are excreted in urine.
- Ensuring the balance of the acid-base balance of the body.
- Preservation of water-salt metabolism in the correct condition.
- Maintenance of functionally significant processes at the level necessary for life.
With problems with the kidneys, substances that have a toxic effect cease to be excreted from the body in the required volume. As a result, the accumulation of harmful products occurs, which negatively affects the human activity. The reproductive system provides reproduction, that is, reproduction. Thanks to the proper functioning of the organs, a man and a woman can conceive a child.
The sex glands provide the production of hormones necessary for reproductive activity and the functioning of the body as a whole. Violation of the production process has a negative effect on the work of other systems (nervous, digestive, mental). The sex glands perform mixed functions (externally and intracretory). As the main and main task, the production of hormones necessary for childbearing is distinguished. In men, the sex glands produce testosterone, in women, estradiol.
Hormones affect such vital processes as: metabolism, the formation and development of the genitourinary system, the growth and maturation of the body, the formation of secondary sexual characteristics, the functioning of the nervous system, sexual behavior. Produced substances enter the bloodstream and are transported to organs in its composition. After spreading throughout the body, hormones affect the functioning of many systems and are important for performing vital functions.
The urinary or (urinary) system of a person differs in structure depending on gender. The difference is in the urethra (urethra). In women, the organ is presented in the form of a wide tube of not long length, the outlet of which is located above the entrance to the vagina. In men, the urination channel is longer and located inside the penis. In addition to removing urine, the body also performs ejaculation.
The kidneys are a paired organ, the left and right segments of which are located symmetrically. They are located in the lumbar region behind the peritoneum. The main function is the formation of urine. The fluid entering the body (mainly from the digestive system) is processed by the kidneys. Further, the urine enters the ureters and the bladder. In addition, the kidneys perform such vital functions as metabolism, normalization of substances, blood filtration and the production of hormones.
The ureters are a paired organ in the form of hollow tubes. The size is individual and depends on the anatomical features of the structure of the body. The functional value is to transport the resulting urine to the bladder. The mediating organ between the kidneys and ureters is the renal pelvis. In her cavity, urine processed by the kidneys accumulates. The renal pelvis inside is covered with a thin layer of epithelial cells.
The bladder is an unpaired muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity. Carries out the function of collecting urine through the ureters for further excretion through the urethra. The shape and size of the organ is affected by the volume of accumulated urine and the structure of the genitourinary system. The mucous membrane of the bladder is covered with an epithelium containing glands and lymphatic follicles.
The ureters are the next organ after the kidneys, which is involved in the excretion of urine from the inside of the body into the external environment. They are tubes that start from the kidneys and enter the bladder. A simple organ in terms of functionality, since the ureters simply distill the urine. Each tube is about 30 cm long.
Male reproductive organs
Further, after the urinary system, it is worth considering the reproductive system, which is no less important in the body and life of a man. The reproductive system consists of several organs responsible for the sexual activity and reproductive ability of men. The reproductive system consists of internal and external genital organs, each of which assumes its functions and purposes.
The internal genital organs must include those organs that are inside the body and are not visible visually. These include the testicles and their appendages, the vas deferens and seminal vesicles, the prostate gland and the urethra.
The testicles have a second name - the testes, that is, the paired organ of the reproductive system, which is intended for the formation of sperm. This glandular organ is located inside the scrotum, has the shape of two eggs with a flattened and smooth surface. Between the two testicles passes the dividing tissue of the scrotum, which protects the organs from friction and mechanical injuries. In addition to seed formation, the testes are responsible for the production of sex hormones, in particular testosterone.
From the back of the testicles, you can see another organ of the reproductive system - appendages adjacent to the walls of the testes. Visually, the appendage resembles the shape of a bundle of firmly twisted tubules. These tubules are designed to allow spermatozoa to ripen in them. After this, sperm together with the fluid flow into the vas deferens, of which the spermatic cord consists to a greater extent.
By the concept of spermatic cord, it is necessary to understand the genital organ as a paired cord, the length of which is 18-20 cm. It starts from the upper pole of the testicle and extends to the deep end of the inguinal canal. In the structure of the spermatic cord, the vas deferens, nerve endings and blood vessels are considered. The spermatic cord, as it were, supports the testes in limbo, it has scrotal and inguinal parts.
By this term you need to understand paired glandular formations that are located on the upper edge of the prostate. Visually, they resemble winding tuberous tubes, the length of which reaches 5 cm and a thickness of up to 1 cm. These glandular formations are intended by nature to form important components of male sperm, respectively, they are important for reproductive health.
An exclusively male organ is the prostate gland or as the prostate is also called. Its structure involves several parts - two lobes and an isthmus, in size and shape of the prostate resembles a chestnut. The prostate gland consists of muscle and glandular tissue, and it is located below the bladder, as if ringing its neck and the first section of the urethra.
Thanks to muscle tissue, the prostate retains urine during an erect state, acting as a valve. Also, the function of the prostate is to eject the seed from the vas deferens due to, again, muscle tissue. The weight of the prostate is from 20 to 50 grams, and its increase can be a clear sign of the development of pathology.
The external genitalia also belong to the reproductive system, only they differ in location and structure. Two organs can be attributed to this - the penis of the man directly, as well as the scrotum, in which the man's testicles are stored. They are called external because they are located outside the abdominal cavity and can be visually visible.
The penis is an organ that performs three important functions at once, namely, excretion of urine from the body, sexual intercourse, as well as the release of sperm at its end. In the structure of the penis, its base, trunk and head are considered, from the inside, the penis consists of cavernous bodies and between them spongy bodies. The cavernous bodies are cavernous tissues that increase under the influx of blood.
The spongy body inside contains the urethra, and the head of the penis is also formed from it. On top of the penis is covered with skin, and on the head there is a fold of leather, that is, the foreskin. On the inside of the penis, this flesh is attached to the head, as a result of which a bridle is formed. In a calm state, the length of the penis is 5-10 cm, during an erection - 14-16 cm. A slit or an external opening of the urethra is also provided on the head of the penis.
By the concept of the scrotum, it is necessary to understand the hollow muscular skin bag in which the testicles of a man are stored. Nature took care of the reproductive health of the man and his ability to give birth, creating just the scrotum. This bag provides the testes with an optimal temperature of 34-35 degrees so that the sperm mature and remain until the seed is ejected. The scrotum in its structure involves several layers or membranes covering the testes.
If you look at the structure of the urogenital system of a man, you can see that for good reason she has such a double name. Medicine considers the reproductive and urinary systems together, since all organs are closely interconnected not only by location and structure, but also by functional load. And any complications and pathologies of one organ will lead to unpleasant consequences throughout the system.
Often, hypothermia causes a malfunction of the genitourinary system. Due to a decrease in protective forces, the likelihood of infection in the internal urogenital organs and the development of the inflammatory process increases. To prevent hypothermia, wear clothing, a hat and shoes that are suitable for the weather, and do not sit in the cold.
Use a condom to prevent infections of the genitourinary system. This contraceptive is by far the most effective means of protection against HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases.
The condom film does not pass pathogens, but is not a 100% protective measure, because there is a risk of slipping, rupture of the contraceptive.
Therefore, additionally use antiseptic agents (for example, Miramistin, Chlorhexidine solutions), especially when changing your sexual partner. They will help reduce the chance of infection.
Timely treatment of diseases
Quite often, the cause of pathologies of the genitourinary system are untreated diseases. They provoke the spread of infection throughout the body (including the genitourinary organs).
This happens, as a rule, in the presence of favorable factors: a decline in immunity, physical or emotional overstrain, hypothermia, etc.
In order to prevent complications on the genitourinary organs, consult a doctor on time and undergo a full course of treatment for infectious and inflammatory processes.
Adhere to a healthy lifestyle: exercise moderate physical activity, monitor your diet, give up bad habits and the likelihood of developing diseases of the genitourinary system will be reduced significantly.
Streamline your day and rest, i.e. the body will have enough time to recover, which will create optimal conditions for normal physical and mental activity.
To increase the body's defenses, take vitamin-mineral complexes.
Comprehensive preventive examination
In addition to preventive examinations by a doctor, each person on his own initiative can undergo a comprehensive examination of the genitourinary organs for timely diagnosis of pathologies:
- laboratory diagnostics (blood tests: general, biochemistry, urine),
- instrumental diagnostics (cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, urethroscopy, ultrasound, CT or MRI, catheterization, bougienage, etc.).
It is better to take a referral for diagnosis from a doctor, he will determine which type of study is more suitable, taking into account the patient's history and state of health.
This herbal uroanoseptic is suitable for the prevention and treatment of genitourinary diseases. It has antibacterial, diuretic, antioxidant and antispasmodic effects. Thanks to the combined action, the agent quickly reduces inflammatory processes and improves the body's defenses.
Indications: prevention and comprehensive treatment of cystitis, pyelonephritis, diathesis, urolithiasis, cholecystitis and other diseases of the genitourinary system.
Contraindications: heartburn, diarrhea, nausea, hypersensitivity, age up to 18 years.
This multicomponent plant uroanoseptic has antimicrobial, antispasmodic, mild diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects. Suitable for long-term prophylaxis of complex treatment of genitourinary infections. The use of the drug improves kidney function, blood circulation, eliminates pathogenic microflora in the genitourinary organs.
Indications: complex treatment and prevention of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system (urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, etc.).
Contraindications: hypersensitivity, age up to 6 years, severe gastrointestinal tract pathologies.
This combined herbal remedy has a diverse effect on the body.
The composition includes herbs, essential oils, which provide anti-inflammatory, diuretic, mild analgesic, diuretic and antispasmodic effects.
Suitable for long-term prevention, while the effect of addiction and drug dependence is absent. It is characterized by good tolerance and minimal restrictions on admission.
Indications: comprehensive treatment and prevention of genitourinary infections (prostatitis, urethritis, kidney stones, ureters or urinary bladder, etc.).
Contraindications: allergy to the components of the drug, severe pathology of the liver, kidneys or gastrointestinal tract.
Female and male organisms practically do not differ in terms of the structure of the excretory system. It consists of:
- Two kidneys.
- Two ureters.
The kidneys are about 10 centimeters in size in an adult and are similar in shape to beans. These organs are located on the dorsal side in the lumbar region. It is almost impossible to feel them, because they are protected by muscle tissue from above.
- Around the kidneys is adipose tissue, which serves as additional protection for these organs, and also, together with the muscle corset, keeps the kidneys at the same level and prevents them from moving.
- The kidneys are the main organs of the excretory system, it is in them that the process of blood filtration and the formation of urine take place, which then enter the bladder through the ureters.
- The bladder in an adult can hold up to 350 ml of urine, and the structure of its walls is such that the urge to urinate occurs only with a certain amount of fluid.
The bladder gradually passes into the urethra. Here, women and men have differences. So, in the female body it is a tube up to 4 centimeters long, and in the male urethra reaches 20 centimeters and performs not only the function of urine output, but also the delivery of seminal fluid.
There are sphincters in the urethra that prevent urine from spilling out of the bladder spontaneously. The internal sphincter is not controlled by volitional force, and the external sphincter can be controlled, so if there is a urge to urinate, we can slightly delay going to the toilet.
The reproductive system of men
The genitourinary system of men, in addition to the previously considered excretory organs, includes the following:
- Testicles. They are paired organs responsible for the production of male hormone and sperm. Even in the period of intrauterine development, their formation and gradual lowering into the scrotum occurs. But even after the final movement, the testes retain the ability to move. This protects the genitals of men from external factors.
- Scrotum. This is a bag designed for the location of the testicles, in it they are reliably protected from injury.
- The epididymis is the canal in which sperm maturation occurs.
- Urethra. Together with the blood vessels, it forms a spermatic cord, extending from the scrotum to the prostate gland itself. Before entering it there is an extension where male sex cells accumulate before the eruption process.
- Seminal vesicles. These are glands designed to produce the fluid that makes up sperm.
- Prostate. It gives off a special secret that gives sperm activity. Here the urethra and the vas deferens are combined. Due to the developed muscle ring, mixing of urine and seminal fluid does not occur.
- Iron Cooper. Designed to produce lubricant that facilitates the passage of sperm.
The genitourinary system of men is a single whole and functions in close interconnection.
The genitals of women
The anatomy of the genitourinary system is represented by a complex of genital (reproductive) organs, which are divided into internal and external. The main functional significance is reproduction (reproduction). Male and female reproductive organs differ significantly. Representatives of the weaker sex urogenital apparatus, and specifically its part responsible for reproduction, is presented in the form of external organs (labia and clitoris) and internal (uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina).
The ovaries are an important organ for reproductive activity. This segment of the reproductive system is a kind of starting point for the formation of a new person. Ovaries are present in the ovaries from birth. When ovulation occurs, one or more of them under the influence of hormones begin to move to the fallopian (uterine) tubes. Subsequently, the fertilized egg enters the uterine cavity.
The fallopian (uterine) tubes, you can also find the name oviducts - a paired organ, presented in the form of a muscular tube covered with epithelium. The average length is 10 cm. The organ connects the abdominal cavity with the uterus. Inside the fallopian tubes, sperm fertilizes the egg. Then the embryo is transported for further development into the uterus using cilia, which are located on the epithelial layer of the oviducts.
The uterus is an unpaired smooth muscle organ, covered with a dense mucous membrane, which is penetrated by numerous vessels. The role in the body of women is based on the fulfillment of the reproductive and menstrual functions. The uterus is the end point in the process of embryo growth. A fertilized egg, attached to the walls, is located in its cavity throughout the pregnancy. The formation and growth of the embryo occurs precisely in the uterus. At the onset of labor, the neck of the organ expands and a path for the fetus emerges.
The vagina is a muscle tube 10-12 cm long. The functional value is to take sperm and create a birth canal for the baby. The vagina begins in the external labia, and the cervix is the end point. The clitoris is an unpaired external female organ. Due to the large number of nerve endings, it is one of the main erogenous zones. The labia is divided into large and small. Their function for the female body is to protect against the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.
The genitals of men
The male organs of the genitourinary system (genitals) as well as the female ones are divided into internal and external. Each segment is necessary for reproductive activities. External genitals are presented in the form of the penis (penis) and scrotum (the cavity in which the testes are located). The structure of internal organs includes:
- The testicles are paired sex glands produced by germ cells (sperm) and steroid hormones. Their formation and descent into the scrotum occurs already during embryonic growth. The ability to move is maintained throughout life, which helps protect the genitourinary apparatus from external factors.
- The vas deferens is a paired male reproductive organ. Presented in the form of a pipe, the length of which is approximately 50 cm. The vas deferens continues the duct of the testis. In the prostate, there is a connection with the ducts of the seminal vesicles and the ejaculatory canal forms.
- Seminal vesicles are paired glands in the form of oval-shaped sacs. Their functional significance is based on the production of protein secretion, which is an integral part of seminal fluid.
- The epididymis is a long narrow duct (6-8 m), necessary for sperm. In the channel, maturation, accumulation and further transportation of germ cells is carried out.
- The prostate gland (prostate) is an exocrine gland located below the bladder. Functions of the organ: production of prostate secretion entering the semen, restriction of exit from the bladder during erection, control of hormone production. The substance produced by iron liquefies seminal fluid and gives activity to germ cells.
- Cooper's glands are a paired organ located deep in the urogenital diaphragm. When an erection of the gland, a transparent mucous secretion is produced that facilitates the penetration of the penis into the vagina and the movement of seminal fluid.
The male reproductive system is a complex set of organs that interacts closely with each other. Correct performance of functions is possible only with the balanced operation of the entire system. Often, pathological disorders of one of the organs provoke diseases of others, and in complicated cases leads to a loss of reproductive ability.
Excretory and reproductive system in children
The formation and laying of these organ systems during fetal development occurs at the earliest possible date. This is due to their importance. The genitourinary system of children immediately after the baby is born is almost completely ready to function.
But in its structure there are still some differences from adults. So, the surface of the kidneys is folded, but it passes after a while. In the work, the organs of the genitourinary system also have differences.
Kidneys of a child carry out the filtration process perfectly, but the reverse absorption has not yet been adjusted to 100%, so the baby’s urine has a low density and a lot of water. Frequent urination is associated with this.
- Gradually, the process improves, the kidneys begin to carry out concentration better and better, and the amount of urine excreted decreases.
- The genitals at the time of birth are fully formed, but even after the birth of the genitourinary system continues to develop.
In order for the development and formation of the urinary system to proceed without special difficulties, parents must follow some recommendations and pay due attention to the hygiene of these organs:
- Boys regularly wash their genitals with water.
- During water procedures, it is necessary to slowly move the foreskin.
- After the bath, the genitals are thoroughly wiped dry.
- At the first sign of discomfort, redness, or pain, you should immediately consult a doctor.
- When washing the genitals of girls, movement should be carried out from front to back so as not to introduce bacteria from the anus to the genitals.
- After bathing, do not rub the external genitalia strongly, just get wet.
- You should not keep the baby in diapers all the time, especially for boys, so that the testicles do not overheat.
The structure of the urogenital system in girls is such that it is more susceptible to various inflammatory diseases, respectively, parents should pay special attention to the health of their daughters.
Possible pathologies of the genitourinary system
The genitourinary apparatus of women and men is a complex system that is subject to the negative influence of various factors. An adverse effect provokes the development of a number of diseases that, without appropriate treatment, cause serious complications, up to the complete loss of reproductive function. Common urinary tract pathologies include:
- cystitis - inflammation affecting the mucous membrane of the bladder,
- fibroma - a benign tumor
- urethritis - inflammation of the urethra, bacterial or viral etiology,
- cervical erosion - a violation of the integrity of the epithelial layer of the mucous membrane,
- prostatitis - an inflammatory process that occurs in the prostate gland,
- vaginitis - a pathology of the vaginal mucosa caused by pathogenic microorganisms,
- pyelonephritis - inflammation in the kidneys,
- vesiculitis (spermatocystitis) - a pathological violation in the work of seminal vesicles,
- endometritis - inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus caused by pathogenic flora,
- oophoritis - an ovarian disease that causes a malfunction of the genitourinary system,
- orchitis - inflammation of the testicular tissue,
- balanoposthitis - pathology of the skin of the penis,
- salpingitis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes, infectious etiology,
- ICD (urolithiasis, urolithiasis) - a disease accompanied by the formation of uroliths (stones) in the kidneys,
- amenorrhea - the absence of menstruation, caused most often by hormonal failure,
- ectopic pregnancy - a pathological disorder in which the fetus develops outside the uterus,
- candidiasis (thrush) - an infectious lesion of the genital mucosa,
- dysmenorrhea - a pathological disorder, manifested in the form of intense pain during menstruation,
- mastitis - inflammation of the mammary glands,
- renal failure - a pathological violation of the functioning of the kidneys, leading to a metabolic disorder,
- endometriosis - the growth of internal cells of the uterus beyond.
In addition to the above pathologies, the genitourinary system is susceptible to the development of malignant neoplasms. A common reason for going to the doctor is also infection of the reproductive system with various bacteria, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms. In this case, the disease is noted in both partners, since urogenital infections are transmitted through sexual intercourse.
Causes and symptoms of urogenital tract pathologies
Pathologies of the genitourinary system can develop as a result of exposure to negative factors. In many ways, the treatment of pathological processes depends on the causes of the provoking violation.If the disease is caused by problems in other organs and systems, then without healing the underlying pathology, improvement will not come. Common causes of diseases of the genitourinary system are: infection with harmful microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi), impaired functioning of the endocrine and digestive systems, stress.
Pathologies associated with digestion cause an imbalance of beneficial substances in the body, and also lead to metabolic disorders. Deviations in the liver can also trigger the development of diseases of the genitourinary system. Infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi reduces the body's immune defense, and pathogenic microorganisms successfully multiply, affecting organs.
Stress and emotional upheaval cause an imbalance in the body and impaired functioning of many systems (digestive, genitourinary, nervous and others).
Due to the structural features of the male urogenital apparatus, most often diseases affect the lower segments of the system. The characteristic symptoms are pain and discomfort during urination and discomfort in the groin area. Manifestations are usually associated with urethritis and prostatitis. In women, most often pathological disorders affect highly located organs. This is due to the fact that women have a short urethra, and pathogenic pathogens easily penetrate the body.
One of the most common pathologies in women is cystitis, which is often asymptomatic at first. Lack of treatment in the early stages leads to complications, including kidney inflammation. With pathologies of the urogenital apparatus in women, the following symptoms are noted: a burning sensation and itching in the genital area, the presence of discharge, pain during urination, a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder. Also, diseases can be expressed as neurological disorders.
A healthy urogenital system is important for proper reproductive function. The birth of children is a crucial stage in the life of every person, and you need to start taking care of the future baby before it is born. In many respects, the health of the child depends on the state of health of the parents, so you can not neglect a preventive visit to the doctor. Examination of the doctor will detect pathologies in the initial stages and exclude the development of complications. Disease prevention is the starting point for the correct functioning of organs and systems.
Diseases of the genitourinary system in childhood
Problems in these organs can appear not only in adults, but also children often become hostages of diseases of the genitourinary system. Deviations in the work of these organs affect the metabolism, so diseases always affect the work of the whole organism.
Most often, the following ailments are revealed in children:
- Cystitis. This is an inflammation of the bladder. It happens more often in girls, because along the ascending paths (they are quite short), the infection easily reaches the bladder. Also, hypothermia can provoke this disease. Watch how your daughters dress.
- Urolithiasis disease. It leads to the appearance of kidney stones or excretory tract stones.
- Pyelonephritis, or inflammation of the kidneys. The bacteria that usually live in the intestines can provoke the inflammatory process. Once in the urinary tract, they are able to move higher and reach the kidneys, and there they begin to provoke inflammation. To make the correct diagnosis, a thorough examination is carried out, which includes not only various tests, but also an ultrasound of the genitourinary system.
- Urinary incontinence. It can occur both in the daytime and at night. Doctors identify several causes of incontinence:
- Urgent or instant.
If enuresis is caused by psychological problems, then the child at night simply does not feel the urge to urinate. This disease requires immediate treatment, because over time it can lead to psychological trauma, the appearance of complexes.
You can separately talk about congenital malformations of the urinary system, which will certainly affect the work of organs.
Problems of the genitourinary system in the fairer sex
The genitourinary system of a woman is very much exposed to various factors that can lead to problems with her organs. Among the common diseases can be noted:
- Bladder cystitis or inflammation.
- Urethritis, with this disease, inflammation of the urethra occurs.
- Vaginitis is an inflammatory process in the vagina.
- Endometritis is an inflammatory uterine disease.
- Oophoritis is characterized by inflammation in the ovary.
- Pyelonephritis is an inflammation in the kidneys.
- Salpingitis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes, can cause female infertility.
- Urolithiasis disease. Initially, sand can form in the kidneys, and then the process goes further and leads to the appearance of stones.
Malicious microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasitic organisms that live inside, can cause any disease of the genitourinary system in women. Some of them can be sexually transmitted, which is why the health of both partners is so important.
Diseases of the genitourinary system in men
A strong half of humanity was also unable to avoid problems with excretory and genital organs. Diseases of the genitourinary system in men are as common as in women.
We can note the following problems that appear most often:
- Prostatitis is an inflammatory process in the prostate gland. It can affect not only sex life, but also the ability to have offspring.
- Vesiculitis is characterized by inflammation of the seminal vesicles.
- Urethritis is when the urethra becomes inflamed.
- Orchitis is an inflammation in the testicles.
- Balanoposthitis is when the foreskin and the glans penis become inflamed.
Some diseases of the genitourinary system are the same in both women and men, they include: pyelonephritis, cystitis, urolithiasis.
Manifestations of diseases of the genitourinary system in both sexes
In men, due to structural features of the genitourinary system, lower urinary tracts are most often exposed to negative factors. This manifests itself in painful urination, heaviness in the perineum. The predominant diseases are urethritis and prostatitis. Infectious diseases of higher organs are much less common.
Diseases of the genitourinary system in women, on the contrary, develop along ascending paths. This is due to the structural features: the urethra is short and wide and easily allows pathogens to pass into the organs lying above.
In this regard, cystitis often develops, and it is not far from kidney inflammation. Female representatives often have an infection, which does not appear in any way, only during tests it is possible to identify its presence.
As a rule, discomfort, burning, discharge from the genitals, painful urination make a woman see a doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
It can also be noted that diseases of the genitourinary system in humans are often manifested not only by physical problems, but also by psychological discomfort. Sleep may be disturbed, irritability, depression, headache may appear.
All this suggests that the treatment of such diseases should not be left to chance. The appointment of drugs should be done by a competent specialist.
Causes of the genitourinary system
There are many such reasons, sometimes it is impossible to even imagine what was the impetus for the development of the disease. You can only try to name the most common causes that can cause problems in this system:
- Gastrointestinal diseases. No matter how strange it may sound, but liver problems, inflammatory processes in the pancreas, helminthiasis, pathological processes in the gall bladder and intestines can easily become the cause of the development of diseases in the genitourinary system.
- Bacterial infections, such as chlamydia.
- Viral diseases. In case of any viral infection, the pathogen enters the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, which in some cases allows it to settle in the pelvic organs and do its dirty work there.
- Fungal diseases.
- Disorders in the endocrine system, such as diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, dysfunction in the work of the sex glands.
- Stress. And we are exposed to them almost constantly, is it really possible after that to be surprised at the spread of so many different diseases.
As can be seen from the foregoing, the urogenital system of a person can be affected by many negative factors. In the treatment of any disease, it is very important to accurately determine the cause, and not to use conventional therapy.
The state of our body depends on the work of the genitourinary system, therefore we must carefully and carefully treat its health.
Features of the female genital organs, their structure
The genitals of a woman consist of external (small and large genital lips, pubis, clitoris) and internal (vagina, uterus, tubes, ovaries).
This is a tube from 10 to 12 cm long, which originates from the external labia and ends with the cervix. It is in contact with the bladder and rectum with the outer connective tissue layer.
It has a pear-like shape and three sections: the neck, body and face. The cervix is the uterine canal, in which there is a specific secret, it has bactericidal properties and prevents the penetration of infection into the internal uterine environment. The uterus is an organ whose walls consist of three types of different muscles and are intended for the formation and development of the fetus.
When childbirth occurs, the vagina together with the cervix form a single birth canal for the fetus to exit.
The fallopian tubes
The length of the fallopian tube is about 10 cm; they are adjacent to the uterine cavity on both sides. Their narrow part has an open exit to the uterus, and the other with a wider formation leaves directly the peritoneal cavity. Fertilization is carried out inside the tube: the egg, collides with the sperm, then the embryo, with the help of ciliated cells, the uterus enters and develops there.
They are located symmetrically, on different sides of the uterus and are female genital glands. Their main function is to produce hormones and the formation of an egg.
In general, the female genital organs are used to conceive and bear the fetus.
The organs of urination and reproduction anatomically and physiologically, are very closely interconnected and are located in one part of the body. Despite the fact that they perform different functions, they are usually considered as one urogenital system.
Therefore, diseases in this area are most often accompanied by violations of most of the above functions. These diseases are either inflammatory or sexually transmitted in nature and need treatment and prevention.
In the presence of any disease, a person immediately experiences discomfort when urinating. Such diseases need medical treatment, as they turn into a chronic form and are caused by serious consequences. Such as infertility and impotence.
Depending on the nature of the disease, you should contact such specialists as a urologist, gynecologist, venereologist. Timely contacting specialists will help to avoid serious consequences.