Urethritis in men, what is it? Symptoms and Treatment
Urethritis is a male disease that is associated with inflammation of the walls of the urethra.
The main threat of the disease may be with incorrect or untimely treatment, narrowing of the channel or its complete adhesion.
Also, the disease can affect other pelvic organs, thereby significantly complicating the course of the disease.
Features and classification
Bacterial urethritis man can be infected most often through sexual contact with a partner.
As a result of this, inflammatory processes of the urethra occur due to the presence of pathogenic flora.
Bacterial urethritis may occur not only during infection through a partner, but also during various manipulations:
- with endoscopic examination of the channel,
- during catarrhization and other manipulations.
Bacterial urethritis is one of two options:
- Primary. This type of disease can occur in acute form or go into the chronic stage. Signs of infection are not pronounced, as a result of which the man is a carrier of the disease.
There may be slight pain with urine or pus, which should alert the patient.
Swelling of the mucosa and tissues also occurs. To make a correct diagnosis of this type of disease, laboratory tests neededthat confirm the presence of pathogenic flora.
This is especially true in the chronic form, since in this case the symptoms are practically not noticeable or the disease does not manifest itself for a long time.
The only discomfort may be burning and itching. In chronic inflammation, there is a high resistance to drugs. Secondary. Microorganisms enter the mucous membrane of the urethra as a result of inflammatory processes of the bladder, prostate, other pelvic organs, as well as with angina and pneumonia.
Secondary form of bacterial urethritis characterized by a long course. The patient observes in his urine when emitting a burning sensation, pain, as well as minor discharge in the form of mucus or pus. There is also hyperemia and gluing of the sponges.
The main differences between urethritis and cystitis are described here.
Reasons for the appearance
The most common cause of bacterial urethritis is sexual intercourse with a partner who is infected with pathological microorganisms. Read more about the causes of urethritis and transmission routes in this article.
Also, the disease may appear in connection with previous sexually transmitted diseases or with the presence of various kinds of infections. Personal hygiene also plays an important role..
Fungal or genitourinary infections, when ingested, multiply rapidly, adversely affecting the entire genitourinary system. Factors such as frequent change of sexual partners without the use of protective equipment.
Diseases that lower immunity can also provoke a disease, which allows various microorganisms to progress and multiply.
The disease begins to manifest only 4 or 7 days after infection. Therefore, not every man immediately after infection goes to the doctor. Therefore, it is important to know the most important symptoms so that the urologist or venereologist can choose the appropriate treatment.
Symptoms of bacterial urethritis in men:
- Itching appears in the groin or genitals.
- During urination, a man may experience a burning sensation, pain.
- During sex, due to swelling and swelling of the genital organ, the patient begins to experience painful sensations.
- A small amount of blood is possible in semen.
- Blood may also be in the urine.
- Mucous discharge, especially in the morning, can have a rather unpleasant odor.
- The channel opening acquires a red tint.
- Due to purulent discharge, the sponges of the canal stick together.
Treatment of bacterial urethritis in men
There are effective methods of therapy that qualitatively treat bacterial urethritis. The most important treatment options are antibiotics, which the doctor selects, taking into account all the indicators of analysisthat must be carried out before starting treatment.
The course of taking drugs of this group is selected individually, based on the indicators of analyzes.
It aims to get rid of the simplest microorganisms by destroying their DNA. It is available in 3 forms: tablets, suspensions and injections.
The side effects of the drug should be considered:
- abdominal pain
- the color of urine changes and its incontinence appears,
What it is?
Urethritis is usually called the inflammatory process, which is localized in the urethra. The disease is quite common, regardless of gender and age. To clearly understand what urethritis is in men, the treatment and symptoms of this pathology, you should have an idea about the anatomy of the male urethra.
When taking the drug, the death of microorganisms occurs. It is produced in the form of granules, which must be dissolved in water.
The medicine has such side effects as:
- dry mouth
The tool inhibits microorganisms and prevents their reproduction. You can not take the drug for impaired liver function.
It has side effects such as:
- violations of the digestive tract,
- causes allergies
The tool has a wide spectrum of action and effectively treats bacterial urethritis.
Among the side effects, there is an unpleasant taste in the mouth after using it in the form of tablets or solution, headache and unsteady gait.
It can not be used by patients with epilepsy and if the patient has diarrhea.
Negatively affecting pathogenic microorganisms, it effectively fights this type of disease.
It is suitable for any stage or form of urethritis, which allows you to quickly and accurately treat the disease. The drug is sold in the pharmacy in the form of capsules and is well tolerated by patients.
It also has side effects:
- gastrointestinal upset,
- allergic manifestations
- negatively affects the nervous system,
- hearing impairment and smell are possible.
It is not prescribed for stroke patients and those who have had a head injury.
This drug is recommended for all forms of urethritis.
It effectively destroys microorganisms and prevents their further reproduction.
Side effects may be:
- nervous system disorders
- disorders in the digestive tract,
- the drug causes hypotension.
There are other treatment methods that are effectively combined with antibiotics. These include taking antihistamines if there is itching or swelling of the penis.
In case of illness, it is advisable to take vitamin complexes and drugs that have a beneficial effect on the immune system. It can be:
In complex treatment, the use of physiotherapy will be effective:
Is it possible to cure with medication?
Timely treatment of the disease gives positive predictions of getting rid of the disease with the use of drugs. Statistics found that 100% of men suffering from bacterial urethritis completely got rid of the disease after a course of treatment.
In some cases relapse is possiblewhich may appear in about 3 months.
Therefore, it is very important throughout this period to periodically take tests for laboratory tests. For this, it is regularly necessary to do a urinalysis, a smear from the urethra and take a blood test for STIs.
Everything about the treatment of the disease at home is in this publication.
While taking antibiotics, it is strictly forbidden to drink any alcohol, even in the form of beer. It is also recommended that fatty, spicy and smoked foods be excluded from the diet.
At the time of treatment, a man should stop having sexso as not to transmit the infection to your partner.
Follow personal hygiene and have a separate towel, sponge and other personal care products. It is not recommended to visit the bathhouse, sauna or pool.
It is important to remember that when diagnosing a disease do not self-medicatem. Reception of any drugs is carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor. After treatment, after a couple of weeks, it is necessary to undergo an examination, in which case to prevent a relapse of the disease.
Drugs that eliminate the infection
The basis of the conservative treatment of urethritis is etiotropic drugs - medicines that destroy the pathogenic flora. Depending on the cause of urethral inflammation, men are prescribed the following groups of drugs:
- antimycotics (antifungal agents),
The choice of medication depends on the sensitivity of pathogens to antimicrobials. In 72% of cases, the disease is provoked by bacteria, so it is treated with antibiotics.
Before treating urethritis in a man, the type of pathogen is determined. With bacterial inflammation of the urethra, antibiotics from the group of macrolides, cephalosporins, and tetracyclines are included in the treatment regimen. The most effective tablet preparations include:
- fluoroquinolones - Moxifloxacin, Moximac, Tevalox, Ciprofloxacin,
- macrolides - Clarithromycin, Clamed, Azithromycin, Claricit,
- cephalosporins - Cefix, Loprax, Vinex, Suprax, Zedex,
- tetracyclines - Doxycycline, Vibramycin D, Unidox, Solutab.
With gonorrhea and chlamydial urethritis, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are most effective. Therefore, the treatment regimen includes:
To destroy the causative agent of trichomonas urethritis, antiprotozoal drugs are prescribed - Nitazole, Trinex, Aminitrazole, Tiberal. Mycoplasmal inflammation is eliminated by Doxilan, Tetracycline.
Causes of the disease
As practice shows, in most cases the cause of bacterial urethritis is the ingestion of various infections that are transmitted during sexual contact. The disease is quite insidious and can occur in such a mild form that the patient does not feel any symptoms.
In addition, there are some other factors that influence the occurrence of urethritis:
- irritation in the urethra due to exposure to chemicals that make up soaps, gels and other personal care products,
- the occurrence of allergic reactions of the body to spermicide, which is found in many contraceptives,
- genital injuries of various origins (medical procedures, rough sex, etc.),
- congestion in the pelvic organs,
- narrowing of the urethra.
Since bacterial urethritis refers to local inflammatory processes, it is not accompanied by systemic manifestations in the form of an increase in body temperature, a general deterioration in well-being, and weakness. Thus, the treatment of bacterial urethritis in men is carried out on an outpatient basis, hospitalization is rare.
Treatment is carried out according to the results obtained in the course of research. As a rule, a treatment course consists of antibacterial drugs, the use of local antiseptic agents (for example, a solution of potassium permanganate, miramistin, and others). In addition, taking into account the nature of the disease, a broad spectrum of antibiotics (Amoxiclav, Norfloxacin, Ciprinol) can be prescribed by a doctor. Please note that the use of vitamin complexes and immunomodulating drugs is also necessary.
As for the duration of the course of treatment, it depends directly on the severity and degree of neglect of the disease. Usually, bacterial urethritis is cured in a period of one to several weeks.
It is also necessary to understand that for effective treatment and in order to avoid relapse of the disease, both partners need to be treated, if there is such an opportunity. An appropriate examination is strongly recommended even if the partner does not have any obvious signs of the disease.
Bacterial urethritis is a non-specific inflammation of the urinary canal that is caused by the entry of dangerous microorganisms into the genitourinary tract. The entry of bacteria into the body occurs during intercourse. Infection causes not only the development of urethritis, but also other infectious diseases. This disease develops in a short time, usually in a few days. In the absence of timely treatment of the disease, a chronic form develops, which leads to the appearance of prostatitis and infertility in men.
Treatment with folk remedies
Bacterial urethritis, of course, requires drug exposure, however, traditional medicine is of no small importance as an auxiliary herbal medicine. If this disease occurs, it is recommended to drink a decoction of medicinal plants that have antibacterial and diuretic properties, as well as those that can relieve inflammation and cramping.
As a rule, a decoction is prepared from the collection of several plants:
- celandine, coriander fruits, shoots of kidney tea, stalnik roots, hop haplotypes,
- sage, St. John's wort, wheatgrass, horsetail, caraway seeds.
- knotweed, tansy, buds, ivy, meadowsweet, shepherd's purse, watch.
Freshly squeezed cranberry juice also helps to defeat bacterial urethritis. Useful are decoctions of blackcurrant leaves and cornflower flowers. Another proven remedy is parsley stewed in milk. This medicine should be used every day for two tablespoons.
Particular attention should also be paid to diet. It is necessary to eat foods that differ in anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties: currants, cherries, celery, cranberries, tomatoes, pumpkin, carrots, herbs.
General recommendations for urethritis
To successfully treat this disease, doctors advise to adhere to the following recommendations:
- reduce the amount of fatty, spicy, salty foods consumed,
- make sure that the body receives the necessary amount of fluid,
- avoid overcooling,
- to abstain from sexual activity until the cure,
- observe all personal hygiene requirements without fail.
Since unprotected sex is the main risk factor, the first preventive measure is to avoid random sexual intercourse and use condoms. In addition, it is very important to visit a urologist at the first sign of a possible disease.
Be attentive to your health and do not start other diseases associated with the genitourinary system. Remember that bacterial urethritis is easier to prevent than treat its acute form.
Diagnosis of this disease is not difficult. After the patient describes his symptoms, the doctor directs him to urine and blood tests. Examination of urine under a microscope will show specialists the presence of bacteria, the presence of protein in the urine and the level of white blood cells. If an inflammatory process is detected, due to an increase in the level of leukocytes, the patient is often prescribed an additional examination to confirm the diagnosis. A smear from the urethra is the most effective method for diagnosing diseases of the genitourinary system. Before conducting the analysis, the patient is advised to avoid sexual intercourse the day before and, in the case of taking potent medicines, stop their use for some time. In some cases, the doctor prescribes an ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs. If the cause of the disease is sexually transmitted infections, then the patient is referred to a venereologist.
During therapy, the patient is recommended to adhere to a diet and refuse sexual intercourse. Drug treatment is selected by the doctor individually after studies on sensitivity to various drugs.
The first stage of treatment, as a rule, is the use of antibiotics, which eliminate the inflammatory process and kill bacteria that are the causative agents of the disease. After or while taking antibiotics, the patient is prescribed therapy aimed at increasing immunity.
The next step is the introduction of an antibacterial solution into the urethra using a catheter.
Before starting treatment with folk remedies, you should consult your doctor. With urethritis, folk remedies are not independent medicines, but auxiliary ones. The most common types of therapy are the use of infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants, the consumption of herbs, washing and bathing with solutions.
Prevention and prognosis
Prevention of the development of bacterial urethritis is the use of contraceptives during sexual intercourse, adherence to genital hygiene, timely diagnosis of diseases of the pelvic organs. Common preventive methods include sound and healthy sleep, proper nutrition, lack of hypothermia and the elimination of serious stressful shocks.
Timely treatment of bacterial urethritis, the correct diagnosis and compliance with the recommendations prescribed by the doctor guarantees a full recovery after undergoing therapy. In the absence of proper treatment or delaying it, the disease will turn into a chronic form, which threatens infertility.
Video: Bacterial urethritis in women
Bacterial urethritis in women
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- Urethritis is an inflammatory disease with localization of the pathological process in the mucous membrane of the urethra.
- Therapy of this disease is aimed at eliminating the etiological (causal) factor that led to inflammation.
- The treatment regimen for urethritis in men includes:
- antifungal drugs
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Causes of urethritis in men
- The most common and significant etiological factor in the development of the inflammatory reaction of the urethral mucosa is the infectious process.
- Depending on the pathogen, these types of urethritis are distinguished:
- Specific urethritis. Inflammation is caused by specific bacteria - pathogens of infections of the urogenital tract, sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma).
- Nonspecific urethritis. The development of the pathological process leads to parasitization of bacteria, which can also cause inflammation in other organs and tissues (streptococci, intestinal, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, staphylococcus).
- Fungal urethritis. The main reason for the development of the inflammatory process is a fungus of the genus Candida (candidiasis).
- There is also urethritis, in which the cause of the disease is damage to the urethral cells under the influence of chemical (aggressive substances, some medications) and physical (ionizing radiation, temperature changes) factors.
Signs of urethral inflammation
With urethritis in men, local symptoms develop, which is characterized by the appearance of:
- I. pain,
- II. Burning,
- III. Itching in the urethra.
- Unpleasant sensations intensify during urination.
- Parasitization of a nonspecific infection may be accompanied by the appearance of purulent discharge from the urethra.
- Violation of the general condition in the form of a rise in temperature, weakness, body aches.
How to treat urethritis
in men tells
medical lieutenant colonel
Doctor Lenkin Sergey Gennadievich
This article is checked and confirmed for compliance with medical
standards by a doctor, dermatovenerologist, urologist, candidate of medical sciences
Lenkin Sergey Gennadevich
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Urethritis has a different nature of the occurrence of the disease. The most common cause is infection.
This type of disease has two types:
In the first case, the disease is transmitted sexually.
The reason for its development will be:
In the second embodiment, urethritis provokes:
- E. coli
- various fungi.
Doctors also share primary and secondary urethritis. In the primary inflammatory process begins in the channel for urine output. Typically, infection occurs at the time of intercourse.
The secondary form of the disease is the onset of inflammation and its spread to other organs. It can be any organs located near the urethra.
If the disease has a non-specific form, the pathogenic flora that has got into the urethra will be the cause. This happens if the patient has had a catheter for a long time during endoscopy of the excretory tract or intimate proximity with the carrier of the infection.
Urethral inflammation causes great discomfort to the patient and can cause a complex illness.
Primary and secondary species
Primary and secondary bacterial urethritis has its own characteristic symptoms and signs.
Characteristics of the primary type of disease, its acute form:
- the disease is characterized by an acute and chronic form of the course,
- the development of bacterial urethritis takes a different period,
- symptoms are not pronounced,
- the patient experiences pain when removing urine, pus, swelling, itching and burning are observed.
The diagnosis is established only after laboratory tests. Be sure to bacosow for infection. It is necessary to apply the high-frequency PCR method.
Features of the chronic course:
- Symptoms are practically absent.
- A slight burning sensation and itching may be noticeable.
- Discharge is observed in a small amount.
- In this case, the treatment of this type of disease is quite difficult. Infection is resistant to drugs.
A fairly wide urethra in women contributes to the development of chronic bacterial urethritis. As a result of this, cystitis develops.
What threatens the development of bacterial urethritis in men? In men, such a disease is usually accompanied by an inflammatory process of the excretory ducts of the prostate. Then problems with the release of sperm or the appearance of blood in it may begin.
With the development of the secondary form of urethritis, the infection enters the organs of the genitourinary sphere due to any inflammatory process in the body.
- sore throat development,
This type of disease tends to occur without symptoms, and it lasts quite a while.
But the patient will have certain signs:
- General weakness appears.
- With the release of urine, mild pain. Small patients may not complain of pain.
- In the morning, a little pus will come out with urine.
- The flow of blood to the mucosa.
- Bonding of the external lips of the urethra.
During the study, the first portion of urine will be cloudy. According to the results, an increase in white blood cells is detected. At the second and third fence, the indicators will normalize. To determine the type of infection, a flush from the urethra is performed.
The method of treatment will depend on the results of the study. If the patient has cystitis, additional use of drugs will be required. Complex treatment will be carried out.
- the use of antibacterial drugs,
- the introduction of special medicinal solutions into the urethra,
- raising the tone of immunity.
If the disease is secondary, the effectiveness of treatment will depend on getting rid of the root cause. With the cure of cystitis or another disease, urethritis will pass quite quickly.
When the detection of urethritis due to the development of gonorrhea has occurred, the use of penicillin group drugs will be an effective treatment.
Another patient needs:
- Drink plenty of fluids.
- Do not drink alcohol.
- Do not use fatty and spicy in the diet.
The chronic form of the disease requires an integrated approach.
If trichomonas urethritis is detected, antimicrobials are used. It is impossible to treat such a disease on your own, it can cause the development of a chronic stage.
Signs of the course of the disease:
- very mild symptoms
- infection occurs almost always through sexual contact,
- the likelihood of developing prostatitis is about 20%,
- the chronic form is difficult to treat,
- markedly worsens the general condition of the patient.
Treat bacterial urethritis only when visiting a doctor.The chronic form of the disease is poorly treated, regardless of the underlying cause.
Urethritis of bacterial etiology and methods for its treatment
Bacterial urethritis (code according to ICD-10: No. 34) is the pathological response of the human body to the penetration of a non-specific pathogenic agent into it. Microbes, once in the urethral canal, affect its walls, triggering inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane. Both sexes are equally susceptible to disease, but bacterial urethritis is more often diagnosed in men. Treatment should be urgent.
Other types of illness
Chlamydia or candida can cause urethritis. This infection enters the body and develops, provoking the occurrence of an inflammatory process.
When chlamydia appears, it can be affected:
- urethral mucosa
- mucous membrane of the eye.
Most often, such bacteria enter the body through sexual contact. The course of the disease proceeds without pronounced symptoms. If left untreated, damage to the joints, genital mucosa and eyes can occur simultaneously.
It is possible to determine the course of this type of urethritis only with the study of scraping. For treatment, antibiotics, corticosteroids are used. The doctor selects the treatment according to an individual principle and it passes under supervision. If necessary, adjustments are made for the dosage and duration of use of the drugs.
Candida belong to the group of yeast fungi. This type of urethritis is rare. It can provoke prolonged use of antibiotics. A partner can become a carrier if she develops vulvovaginitis with the presence of these fungi.
With sexual intimacy, the possibility of infection increases in the presence of any inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system.
Characterization of candidamytic urethritis:
- Mild symptoms.
- Unpleasant sensations when urinating.
- Slight itching and burning.
- Small discharge from the urethra.
After passing the tests, the development of the inflammatory process in the urethra is revealed. Perhaps the course of the chronic form. For treatment, antibacterial drugs are used and additionally antifungal drugs must be used.
Only a doctor prescribes all the medicines.
Characterization of bacterial urethritis
Urethritis is almost always caused by infection. Only in certain cases the disease has a non-infectious nature, for example, allergic. Urethritis, provoked by bacteria, is divided into the following forms:
- Primary bacterial urethritis is diagnosed in a person who does not complain about health and does not have any infectious disease. The reason for going to the doctor is this pathology.
- Secondary occurs when there is already an inflammatory process of a general or local nature (tonsillitis, pneumonia, prostatitis, orchitis, cervicitis). Patients do not notice disturbing symptoms for a long time, referring them to an existing disease.
Both forms may occur in acute or chronic stages. Accordingly, signs of the disease are detected almost immediately after the attack of pathogenic agents or after a certain period of time (30-45 days).
Bacterial (microbial) urethritis is a local focal inflammatory process. Standard symptoms, such as fever or intoxication, are absent. After 7-10 days from the time of stay in a provoking situation, the main signs of the disease appear:
- lower abdomen hurts (above the pubis),
- urination causes sharp pains,
- disturbing non-standard discharge (serous-purulent, mucous-foamy) with a specific smell,
- genitals redden and swell.
Microbial urethritis affects both sexes equally, but the male and female forms of the disease have differences. Painful manifestations in men are more pronounced than in women.This is due to the difference in the anatomy of the organs of the excretory system. In the weaker sex, the urethra is hidden, the urinary canal is much shorter than the male, all signs are blurred, not expressive. Therefore, bacterial urethritis in women is not immediately detected, treatment is late, and inflammation usually transforms into a chronic stage.
In men, the urethra is located inside the penis, the length of the urethra is 17-22 cm. The disease leads to swelling and redness of the penis. Often there is a decrease in the lumen of the channel, which creates a problem with urination, making the process difficult and painful.
Urethritis in men
Urethritis is a disease of an infectious and inflammatory nature, leading to damage to the mucous membrane of the terminal urinary tract - the urethra or urethra. Urethritis most often occurs in acute form.
Etiology of the disease
In the human body, many bacteria constantly participate, participating in vital metabolic reactions, for example, in digestion. But among the beneficial microflora there is the so-called opportunistic. It includes staphylococci, E. coli, streptococci (non-specific flora). Representatives of this “community” live quietly in the body without causing harm. To "start" the disease, the active reproduction of pathogens must provoke something, certain conditions are needed when they "begin to act."
But there are a number of specific microorganisms that, once inside a person, immediately provoke the onset of the pathological process. Such infectious agents include chlamydia, trichomonads, ureoplasma.
Bacterial urethritis is named after its causative agent:
- Specific - develops in the presence of gonococci, chlamydia, Trichomonas, candida, gardnerella.
- Nonspecific - the disease is caused by staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, E. coli (representatives of non-specific opportunistic flora).
You should not be affected by factors that can cause urethritis. They put into operation mechanisms that activate the activity of pathogenic microflora, processes that lead to pathology are triggered. The list of negative premises:
- unsafe sex
- traumatic injuries of the urethra,
- insertion of a catheter into the bladder,
- mechanical damage to the walls of the urethral canal with urolithiasis,
- narrowing of the walls of the urethral canal,
- weakening of the protective functions of the body.
Bacterial urethritis is initially provoked by specific pathogenic microbes, which leads to a weakening of the immune system. This activates the conditionally pathogenic flora. As a result, non-specific bacterial urethritis appears. Men often have problems going to the doctor: they are shy, afraid of publicity, do not like to be treated. But the later the treatment is started, the more difficult it is.
When the body gives off alarm signals, it is worth consulting a doctor and, if necessary, starting treatment. If you postpone the implementation of therapeutic measures, unpleasant irritating signs gradually go away, and the illusion of recovery is created. But when exposed to any adverse factor (hypothermia, intake of strong drinks, multiple sexual contacts), the disease returns. In women, recurrent phenomena of urethritis include cystitis, bartholinitis, vaginitis, places of inflammation appear in the bladder, in the vagina and its vestibule.
In men, pathological phenomena can affect the back of the urethra. Seminal vesicles and the prostate also fall under attack. Diagnosed with orchitis and prostatitis. In parallel, an infection that exists for a long time in the walls of the urethra leads to its narrowing, and adhesions appear.
Types of urethritis
According to the etiological factor, the following types of urethritis can be distinguished:
- Bacterial is the most common clinical form. It occurs under the influence of streptococcus, staphylococcus, Escherichia coli and gonococcus.
- Fungal - is formed against the background of an immunodeficiency state. The mucous membrane of the urethra is affected by fungi of the genus Candida.
- Viral is the rarest clinical option. It occurs as a result of infection with the herpes simplex virus type 2 or genius papillomavirus, as well as the Epstein-Barr virus.
- Toxic - a reactive form of urethritis, which is not associated with the presence of infection in the urinary system. It includes toxic damage to the urethral mucosa as a result of aggressive chemical exposure to certain substances. For example, with some types of chemotherapy, a side effect is urethritis, which occurs due to the aggressive chemical effects of the metabolism of the drug on the mucous membrane of the urinary tract.
Urethritis has two clinical variants of the course: acute and chronic.
In the acute form of the disease, the latent period is short, and the symptoms are pronounced, in chronic - the manifestations are mild or absent.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra can occur under the influence of various factors of the external and internal environment. In most cases, the infectious and inflammatory process is formed as a result of the active development of pathogenic microflora.
Patients note that discomfort with urethritis is permanent and tends to intensify in the evening.
An infectious agent can be introduced into the body from the external environment or as a result of secondary infection with hematogenous or lymphogenous dissemination of infection in the body.
In addition to infection, a number of additional risk factors play a role in the development of the disease. Causes of urethritis in men can be as follows:
- infection during unprotected sexual intercourse,
- weakening of immunity,
- non-observance of personal hygiene.
- the use of chemotherapeutic drugs,
- infectious diseases of the urogenital tract,
- frequent stressful situations.
The length of the urethra in men is on average 15–20 cm. It passes through the thickness of the prostate gland, and also has a number of physiological constrictions and enlargements, in which, under unfavorable circumstances, the infection that has got into the terminal urinary tract can be localized.
Pathology Detection Methods
At the first manifestations of painful symptoms, you should immediately go to the doctor. If urethritis was preceded by a sexually transmitted disease, then consultation with a venereologist is required.
For proper diagnosis, especially if the disease is asymptomatic or with mild manifestations, in addition to a medical examination, tests and studies are prescribed.
- Laboratory study of urine. An increase in white blood cell count confirms the presence of inflammation. For research, take a morning portion of urine.
- To detect bacterial urethritis, blood is always taken for analysis.
- Necessarily need a smear from the urethra. It is examined under a microscope for the presence of bacteria. Before the procedure, sex and taking antibiotics should be excluded. A couple of hours before taking biomaterial, you can not go to the toilet.
- Sometimes patients are referred for ultrasound.
Among the additional methods for detecting urethritis caused by bacteria, the following are distinguished:
- three glass sample
- urinalysis according to Nichiporenko,
- tank. urine culture
An increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood and urine, the presence of protein in the urine - all these indicators indicate urethritis of bacterial origin. Urine culture allows not only to identify representatives of the pathogenic flora, but also to choose an effective drug for treatment.
Stages of urethritis
Urethritis has three successive stages of development.
- Hidden period.The disease begins with the introduction of a pathogenic organism into the mucous membrane of the urethra, or urethra, which entails the development of a local inflammatory process. At this stage, clinical manifestations may be scarce or completely absent. The period of reproduction and local spread of the infection is called prodromal or latent, it takes from 2 days to a week, after which the disease goes into the acute phase.
- The acute phase has clinically pronounced manifestations of urethritis. The endo- and exotoxins secreted by bacteria cause damage to the urinary tract and dystrophic changes in the mucous membrane of the urethra, this leads to the formation of the symptoms of the disease.
- The recovery phase. A few days after the onset of the disease, the immune system activates and suppresses the pathogenic flora in the urethra, which leads to a decrease in inflammation, the intensity of the pain syndrome and other manifestations of urethritis. However, a decrease, or even the complete disappearance of symptoms does not mean a cure - in an unfavorable situation, the disease becomes chronic.
Symptoms of urethritis in men:
- Pain syndrome. It manifests itself as the appearance of pain of weak and medium intensity in the area of the urethra, and sometimes the entire pelvis. Patients associate the occurrence of pain with urination, while pain and burning are noted.
- The discomfort. Patients note that discomfort with urethritis is permanent and tends to intensify in the evening.
- Frequent urination. Complaints of a feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder, which leads to increased urge. The volume of urine released at a time is significantly reduced.
- Discharge from the urethra. Constant secretion of mucus and purulent discharge from the external opening of the urethra. Allocations are of various consistencies, from liquid or watery to creamy. With bacterial urethritis, discharge from the urethra has an unpleasant pungent odor. Depending on the color, texture, odor, primary differential diagnosis of urethritis can be carried out.
The above symptoms of urethritis in men can occur in various combinations.
Launched urethritis can cause pyelonephritis and chronic renal failure.
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The main therapeutic areas
In case of chronic nonspecific urethritis, antibiotic agents are combined with the administration of Collargol and Silver Nitrate. The patient is prescribed immunostimulants. A successful outcome with secondary urethritis is associated with the effectiveness of the primary infection therapy, on the basis of which it developed.
The following is recommended for patients with bacterial urethritis:
- At the peak of the disease, bed rest is prescribed. The speed of recovery will depend on the diligence in implementing this recommendation.
- It is necessary to drink a lot of liquid, at least 2.5-3 liters should be drunk per day. This can be not only water, but also fruit drinks, fruit drinks, therapeutic decoctions. With a lack of fluid in the body, a favorable environment is created for the reproduction of bacteria.
- In nutrition, you must adhere to the rules: do without spices, spices, fatty, smoked and consume a minimum of salt.
- At the time of treatment, abstinence from sex is desirable. Or, if necessary, use condoms.
Conservative methods of treatment are based on the use of antibiotics and antimicrobial medications. Features of the therapeutic course depend on the clinic of the disease.
Symptomatic therapy is aimed at reducing the manifestations of the disease and improving the well-being of the patient. Physiotherapeutic procedures (electrophoresis, UHF, magnetotherapy) are recommended for patients, but only in the absence of pain symptoms.
Folk recipes are not an alternative to conservative therapy. They are only an additional component to antibiotic drugs and give good momentum. Herbs are usually inexpensive and can be purchased at any pharmacy. It is important to choose the right plant collection to eliminate inflammation in bacterial urethritis.
There are plants whose decoctions and infusions have analgesic and diuretic effects, cope with spasms and are antiseptics. For example, cranberry juice with cranberries helps to remove pathogenic flora from the urinary system. There is a huge amount of vitamins in it, the drink has a pleasant taste. Bearberry leaves, a decoction of yarrow grass, parsley, an infusion of elderberry flowers, calendula flowers, knotweed, berries and rosehip roots have proven themselves well. Medicines are drunk before meals in a third of a glass.
Patients at home are also recommended to make local warm chamomile baths with the addition of a succession. They reduce inflammation and soothe.
In the fight against any disease, prevention should come first. It includes measures not only to prevent primary inflammation, but also to prevent relapse. Here are the basic rules to help prevent bacterial urethritis:
- Sex must be safe.
- The genitals toilet should be carried out carefully, preferably with the use of natural detergents.
- Do not undergo hypothermia, do not sit on a cold surface.
- Choose underwear from cotton materials.
- Too tight trousers, jeans, squeezing the pelvic area are not recommended.
- If there are medical instrumental examinations of the pelvic organs, it is advisable to drink a preventive course of antimicrobial drugs.
Do not neglect your health. Do not self-medicate, and even more so do not be inactive. If there are manifestations of urethritis, you should immediately go to the doctor for qualified help and begin to treat the pathology. Launched by chance, the disease has the property of giving complications that can ruin the established way of life.
Instrumental research methods
- An ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs is performed to exclude oncological and other organic pathologies from the bladder, as in some cases diseases of neighboring organs can lead to the formation of a clinical picture similar to urethritis.
- Urocystoscopy - examination of the urethra and the walls of the bladder using endoscopic equipment. The method allows you to visually assess the condition of the mucosa and pathological changes in it.
- Urography using contrast. Currently rarely used. This technique is the least informative in comparison with ultrasound and urocystoscopic examination.
Laboratory research methods
- General analysis of urine - allows you to assess the qualitative composition of urine, the presence of epithelial cells, white blood cells and red blood cells.
- Bacterial inoculation of mucus from the urethra - allows you to determine the type of bacteria that led to the development of the disease, as well as the degree of sensitivity of bacteria to antibacterial drugs.
- General blood test - shows the effectiveness of the patient's immune system in the fight against the infectious process. Allows you to determine the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and other immunocompetent cells in the blood.
Differential diagnosis of urethritis in men is carried out with infectious and inflammatory diseases of the bladder and prostate gland, as well as with oncological diseases of the pelvic organs.
Untimely treatment or its absence can lead to the development of complications as a result of an ascending infection of the bladder and pyelocaliceal system of the kidneys. Launched urethritis can cause pyelonephritis and chronic renal failure.
In the acute form of the disease, the latent period is short, and the symptoms are pronounced, in chronic - the manifestations are mild or absent.
Bacterial urethritis in men: causes, symptoms and treatment
Bacterial urethritis is a disease characterized by an inflammatory process of the mucous membrane of the urethra, caused by bacteria of various kinds. This disease often affects both sexes, regardless of their age. With improper and untimely treatment, it can lead to serious complications.
Causes of bacterial urethritis in men
The cause of the development of pathology are bacteria. In the human body in a healthy state, a large number of bacteria coexist with each other, some of which can be attributed to the conditionally pathogenic flora. This means that under normal conditions, these microbes do not cause any disease.
These bacteria include staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli and others.
When favorable conditions arise, for example, weakened immunity, hypothermia, these bacteria multiply actively, the body's immune system does not have time to deal with their growing number, which leads to the development of pathology.
In addition, various microbes that enter the body from the outside can cause the disease, for example, during unprotected intercourse. These bacteria include the main causative agents of sexually transmitted diseases, these are: chlamydia, Trichomonas, gonococcus, gardnerella and others. Bacterial urethritis, depending on the variety of pathogen bacteria, can be divided into the following types:
- Specific view. It includes urethritis pathogens, which are bacteria that enter the body during unprotected intercourse.
- Non-specific view. These are urethritis, which have developed due to the multiplication of bacteria living in the human body.
- Mixed view. With this type of disease, sexually transmitted bacteria join the microbes causing the development of a disease of a non-specific type.
In addition, according to the method of distribution, bacterial urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. The disease develops in the urethra due to the penetration of bacteria from the outside.
- Secondary. The disease develops due to the spread of bacteria from the foci of infection, for example from the prostate, or the bladder.
In addition, there are a number of common causes that affect the development of the disease:
- The presence of chronic foci of infection in the body.
- Caries and other infections of the oral cavity.
- Abuse of spicy, salty, pickled food.
- Bad habits, alcohol abuse.
- Congenital malformations of the genitourinary system.
- A mechanical effect that causes damage to the mucous membrane of the walls of the urethra, for example, during catheterization or cystoscopy.
- Stress, excessive exercise.
By the nature of the course of the disease, there are:
- Acute form. It is characterized by a rapid course and severity of symptoms.
- Chronic form. Long-term current condition with relapses and remissions, symptoms are not pronounced.
A disease of any kind requires timely and correct treatment.
Symptoms of the disease characteristic of men
The main symptoms of the disease include:
- Difficulty and pain when urinating. This symptom occurs due to a narrowing of the urethra.
- Burning sensation during urination.
- The presence of bloody streaks in urine or semen.
- Frequent urge to urinate, while the amount of urine excreted is negligible or absent altogether.
- Itching and redness in the area of the glans penis.
- Allocations. In a pathological condition, the discharge is characterized by an unpleasant odor, may be mucous or purulent. This symptom is especially characteristic of specific bacterial urethritis. The highlight color is white or gray.
- Decrease in the general tone of an organism, feeling of lethargy, drowsiness.
- Discomfort and pain during intercourse.
In the presence of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor, since timely treatment will help to avoid complications.
Methods for diagnosing the disease
Basically, as diagnostic methods, doctors use:
- Inspection and Interview. The urologist examines the genitals of the patient, interviews the patient about complaints and symptoms.
- Complete blood count and clinical urine test. According to the results of studies, the doctor will determine the presence of the inflammatory process, and by the type and number of leukocytes will determine the nature of the disease.
- LHC plating and PCR diagnostics. With these research methods, a smear from the urethra is taken and the type of bacteria causing the disease is determined.
- Ultrasound of the genitourinary system. This study allows us to conclude about the spread of the disease.
What are the consequences and complications for men caused by bacterial urethritis?
The main complication of the acute form of bacterial urethritis is the transition of the disease to a chronic form. This can happen due to incorrectly appointed untimely treatment, or self-medication.
In the chronic form of the disease, the acute symptoms disappear, however, since the causative bacteria are not destroyed, they continue to affect the genitourinary system. A prolonged sluggish state of the disease can lead to complications such as:
- Orchitis is an inflammation of the testicles.
- Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland.
- Infertility and impotence,
- Cystitis is an inflammation in the bladder.
In addition, a chronic disease with no symptoms is dangerous because a man can become a carrier of sexually transmitted infections and can infect a partner.
The main preventive measures include:
- Use a condom for sexual intercourse.
- Avoid hypothermia of the body.
- Promptly empty the bladder when urged to urinate,
- Timely and correctly treat diseases of the kidneys and organs of the genitourinary system.
- Periodically check for sexually transmitted infections.
- Observe genital hygiene.
- Lead a healthy lifestyle, eat rationally, give up bad habits.
- Avoid stress.
These methods of prevention can reduce the risk of bacterial urethritis.
Nonspecific urethritis in women
Bacterial urethritis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urethra (urethra) or duct of the lower part of the urinary system with a violation of the integrity of their epithelium. The cause of the disease is the growth and development of harmful microorganisms (viruses and bacteria). Bacteria provoke bacterial urethritis, which affects both women and men.
Infections that enter the body as a result of sexual intercourse provoke specific urethritis. Nonspecific urethritis is caused by the penetration of pathogens into the urethra. Pathology is characterized by certain symptoms, treatment not received on time leads to the fact that other concomitant serious diseases begin to develop.
In the process of therapy, drugs of a wide spectrum of action are selected, since urethritis is not an isolated disease.
How does urethritis develop?
Many bacteria of the human body form a conditionally pathogenic flora, they are necessary for the course of internal processes. A variety of Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, E. coli, Klebsiella, Streptococcus - non-specific bacteria. They cause inflammation only in a number of cases, when certain conditions occur.
Bacterial urethritis begins at the moment when the columns of pathogens appear on the mucous membrane of the urethra. In the area of the urethra, they will wait for the right time to attack. This can be a period of decreased immunity, periods of increased influence of allergens on the body sensitive to them, imbalance in the urethral microflora.
Nonspecific urethritis is chronic and acute. Acute diseases have more striking symptoms, so their diagnosis is simplified. Chronic urethritis is dangerous because it can develop asymptomatically.
Specific bacterial urethritis is excited by trichomonads, ureaplasmas, chlamydia. Most often, parasites transmitted during sexual intercourse cause instant inflammation of the urethra in both women and men.
What is bacterial urethritis
By bacterial urethritis it is customary to understand the inflammatory process in the urethra, which develops after the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into it.
The disease may be:
- primary, in which infection occurs from the outside,
- secondary, developing against the background of the presence in the body of other foci of inflammation (most often in the prostate or bladder).
Bacterial urethritis in men is diagnosed several times more often than women. The disease is characterized by a severe course, which is associated with the anatomical structure of the male urethra, reaching a length of 22 cm, and forming bends in its path. In connection with this feature, the infection lingers longer in the urethra, and with the appearance of edema, the risk of overlapping the internal lumen and urinary disorders increases.
Urethritis can occur in acute and chronic forms. In the first case, the disease is characterized by a rapid course and severe symptoms. The chronic form is a long-term current condition, with erased symptoms, frequent relapses.
Causes in men
One of the causes of pathology is the activation of pathogenic microflora in the human body, which includes:
- E. coli.
This happens in the presence of favorable conditions - hypothermia, weakened immunity, the presence of chronic infections in the body, alcohol or heavy food abuse.
Urethritis is contagious, as it is often caused by various microbes that penetrate the human body during unprotected intercourse. These microorganisms include chlamydia, trichomonads, gonococci.
Distinguish factors contributing to the development of the disease:
- damage to the urethral walls during medical procedures (catheterization, cystoscopy),
- regular stress
- non-observance of personal hygiene,
- untimely and poor-quality treatment of male diseases (prostatitis, hydrocele),
- immoderate physical activity.
The most difficult is urethritis, the causative agent of which is Staphylococcus aureus.
This type of bacteria has a high degree of resistance to antibiotics, which often requires long-term treatment.
7 symptoms of bacterial urethritis
Nonspecific urethritis most often makes itself felt long after its development has begun. Symptoms characteristic of the disease may not appear for a long time.
In men, the symptoms of bacterial urethritis are similar to the symptoms of prostatitis. Diagnosis of urethritis is possible only after a qualified medical examination.If treatment is not received on time, the inflammation will take the form of a chronic disease and lead to diseases of the prostate gland and even to tumor formations.
Bacterial urethritis in women during the incubation period (from one week to several months) has weak forms of development. Sometimes diagnosis is carried out only when the pathology is already chronic and causes the patient inconvenience.
In both men and women, such chronic urethra diseases are dangerous with subsequent infertility.
Acute urethritis is determined at the upper peak of the disease. At this moment, he has the most acute symptoms:
- pain during urination or during intercourse,
- strong discharge from the genitals, often with a smell,
- redness and swelling of the urethral mucosa,
- frequent urination,
- pain in the urethra,
- after urination, a little blood is released.
Acute urethritis requires immediate medical advice. The doctor will conduct an examination, say what kind of diagnosis is needed and prescribe treatment so that such manifestations of the disease no longer bother the patient and go into chronic urethritis.
Subacute urethritis suppresses severe symptoms, urethral pain subsides, discharge decreases. From time to time in the morning, soft crusts stand out in women. The urine becomes the usual color, turbidity disappears, but there are strings of pus.
Chronic urethritis in women and men develops if the patient has not been treated at all or the treatment is not prescribed correctly. After hypothermia or alcohol intake, relapse may occur and symptoms resume. Chronic diseases are sometimes treated for years, but the right drugs and a responsible approach will make treatment effective.
In women, sleeping infections of the urethra are in some cases activated during pregnancy, when the body's immune defense weakens and, at the same time, hormonal disruptions occur. The urologist studies, diagnoses and treats the features of the influence of pathological microorganisms in the urethra on pregnant women.
Drugs: treatment regimen
The treatment regimen for bacterial urethritis in men is selected by a specialist after a thorough diagnosis. The goal of therapy is to eliminate the infection and restore the walls of the urethra.
The following types of medications are prescribed to patients:
- Antibiotics from the group of macrolides, cephalosporins, penicillins.
- Enzyme-containing preparations.
- Multivitamin complexes.
In addition, instillations with antiseptic solutions (miramistin, chlorhexidine) are performed to eliminate the pathogenic flora and restore the urethral mucosa.
The treatment regimen for male urethritis is selected individually. The following treatment option is common.
|Antibiotics||Azithromycin - 500 mg orally once a day for 3 days, or a single dose of 2 tablets of 500 mg.|
Clindamycin - 300 mg twice in 24 hours for 7 days.
Ciprofloxacin - 250-500 mg twice daily. Duration of admission is 3-14 days.
|Immunomodulators||Viferon in rectal suppositories - twice a day with a 5-day course.|
|Local treatment||Washing the urethral canal, baths at home with chamomile decoction for 1-3 weeks.|
At all stages of treatment, refusal of alcohol, sexual abstinence, frequent change of underwear, daily hygiene procedures are necessary.
Prevention of bacterial urethritis
Prevention of bacterial urethritis consists of such measures as:
- Prevention of hypothermia.
- Timely treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases.
- Bladder emptying at the first urge.
- Good nutrition and rejection of bad habits.
- Careful personal hygiene.
- Stable sex with a reliable partner.
After accidental sexual intercourse, treatment of the genital organs with antiseptic solutions, a visit to a venereologist are recommended.
Depending on the cause, urethritis in men is divided into infectious and non-infectious, and infectious, in turn, into gonococcal and non-gonococcal.
Non-neococcal urethritis is divided into types depending on the pathogen:
- bacterial (caused by opportunistic microflora),
- mycotic (candida, fungal),
Non-infectious urethritis in men is of the following types:
- congestive (congestive).
By the duration of the course of the disease, fresh (acute, subacute and torpid) and chronic urethritis are isolated.
Depending on the localization of the pathological process:
- front urethritis - in the front of the urethra, i.e. located closer to the outlet on the glans penis,
- posterior - in the posterior urethra, i.e. localized closer to the bladder.
According to the primary development of the inflammatory process, these types of urethritis in men are distinguished:
- primary - when an infectious disease develops in the urethra,
- secondary - when an infection in the urinary tract penetrates from neighboring organs, which are the focus of infection.
Most often, infectious agents enter the urethra from the bladder and prostate gland, where an inflammatory process develops.
Viral urethritis in men in 94% of cases is caused by herpes viruses, which are transmitted through unprotected intercourse. Antiviral drugs in the form of tablets and ointments are used to treat the infection. The former destroy the pathogenic flora throughout the body, and the latter directly in the lesion foci.
The most effective antiviral pills include:
If characteristic vesicular rashes occur on the glans penis, local antiviral agents are used in the form of creams, gels and ointments - Zovirax, Acyclostad, Agerp, Vratizolin. Treatment is continued until the symptoms of the disease disappear in the man.
Candida urethritis is caused by yeast of the genus Candida, therefore, systemic and local fungicidal preparations are prescribed. In half the cases, fungal inflammation occurs after prolonged treatment with antibacterial agents. To destroy the infection in the urethral canal, these tablets are used:
- Amphotericin B
Treatment of lesions in the groin is performed with antimycotic ointments. The most effective drugs include imidazole derivatives:
Ointments are applied exclusively to clean skin up to 3 times a day. Comprehensive antimycotic treatment takes at least 7-20 days. With immunodeficiencies, therapy is prolonged.
Antifungal drugs for urethritis are highly toxic. Overdose leads to diarrhea, anemia, dizziness. It is undesirable to increase the dosage without the recommendation of a urologist.
In the treatment of genitourinary infections, antiseptic agents are used in the form of:
The treatment regimen depends on the characteristics of the course of the disease. In chronic inflammation of the urethra, instillations are performed - drip administration of drugs into the urethra. For the disinfection of the urinary tract, silver nitrate and collargol solutions are used. During the procedure, more than 60% of the pathogenic flora is washed out, which accelerates recovery.
For the destruction of viruses and microbes in the genital area are used:
- solutions - Chlorhexidine, Betadine, Furatsilin, Miramistin,
- ointments - Argosulfan, Doctor Theiss Calendula, Ligenten,
- rectal suppositories - Hexicon, Terzhinan, Miramistin, Osarbon.
Mortar preparations are additionally used for washing the inguinal zone. With fungal and bacterial urethritis, the procedure is performed at least 2 times a day.
To cure urethritis, uroseptics are used - drugs with antiseptic and antimicrobial effects, the components of which reach the maximum concentration in the urine. They do not have a harmful effect on the whole body, since they act directly in the lesions.
For the treatment of urological diseases in men, the following are used:
To reduce the drug load on the body, treatment is carried out with plant uroseptics. Prescribe Fitolizin, Urolesan, Kanefron. Pharmacy collections with thyme, rosemary, chamomile, lingonberry, St. John's wort, juniper and goldenrod have pronounced antiseptic properties.
Urethral inflammation in men is accompanied by pain and intoxication. Patients complain of:
- burning during urination
- suprapubic area pain
- loss of appetite
- elevated temperature.
To accelerate recovery, the treatment regimen is supplemented with immunomodulatory agents. They stimulate the body to fight infection, reduce the likelihood of exacerbations of inflammation.
With a recurring course of urethritis, treatment is carried out with immunostimulating agents. They increase resistance to infections, which shortens the recovery period. In the case of an infectious lesion of the urethra, the following drugs are prescribed:
Immunostimulating drugs for urethritis in men are used only on the recommendation of a urologist. People with immunodeficiency conditions are shown immunostimulating therapy twice a year.
If relief does not occur within 2-3 days after the start of drug therapy, consult a doctor. Inadequate treatment is dangerous with complications - balanoposthitis, prostatitis, cystitis.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets and rectal suppositories are used to combat symptoms. They have a complex effect:
In the treatment of bacterial and viral forms of urethritis, the following agents are prescribed:
Tablets are used in the treatment of acute inflammation, which is accompanied by fever and fever. Ketalgin, Indomethacin, Ketanov, Emodol possess pronounced analgesic properties.
If urethritis occurs against a background of urological diseases (prostatitis, cystitis), rectal suppositories with an anti-inflammatory effect are used:
Suppositories are used 1-2 times a day after bowel movements. They are treated like this until the pain disappears.
In half the cases, urethritis is provoked by opportunistic bacteria. Their activation is associated with immunodeficiencies and vitamin-mineral deficiency. Therefore, from urethritis in men, vitamin preparations are used. They make up for the lack of nutrients, which leads to the strengthening of immune defense.
In the treatment of urogenital infections, agents with vitamins of groups B, E, and C are usually prescribed:
Antimicrobial drugs destroy not only pathogenic, but also beneficial bacteria in the intestines. To prevent dysbiosis and vitamin deficiency, probiotics are included in the treatment regimen. They contain non-toxic living microorganisms that restore the intestinal microflora bioactivity:
- Florin forte
The course of treatment depends on the duration of antibiotic intake, therefore, varies from 5 to 20 days.
Antihistamines are first-line drugs in the treatment of allergic urethritis. Their action is aimed at combating:
- burning in the urethra,
- swelling of the mucosa,
- itching in the genitals,
- skin rashes,
- reddening of the head of the penis.
Third-generation antihistamines are used to relieve symptoms:
Unlike antiallergic tablets of the 1st and 2nd generation, drugs of the 3rd generation do not have a harmful effect on the heart. Therefore, they are recommended to be used for the treatment of urethritis in men with cardiovascular pathologies.
A homeopathic medicine for urethritis is not recognized as official medicine, as it does not have a proven therapeutic activity. But drugs of this group are often used in the treatment of chronic urethritis. Most of them do not have a direct antiviral or antimicrobial effect, but have a stimulating effect on the immune system.
Homeopathic remedies for urethritis:
- Argentum nitricum,
Urethritis is an inflammatory lesion of the urethra of an infectious or allergic origin. Delayed treatment is dangerous by the penetration of pathogenic flora into other parts of the urinary system - urea, ureters, kidneys. The basis of therapy is etiotropic drugs that destroy the infection. The course of treatment depends on the nature of the inflammation and takes from 5 to 20 days.
A bacterial disease can occur in situations where harmful pathogens enter the organs of the urinary or reproductive system. It is customary to divide bacterial urethritis into non-specific and specific forms, and this will depend directly on the bacteria.
In the second embodiment, the disease appears from infection in the body. Enterococci, streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli affect nonspecific urethritis. Inflammation of the mucous membrane in the urethra occurs, which affects the well-being of the patient.
This type of pathology is considered very serious and can bring a lot of problems to the body. Quite often, bacteria enter the female vagina, complicating the healing process. It is necessary to timely detect the problem, perform therapeutic treatment to eliminate the infection and restore the normal microflora of the genitourinary organs.
How does the disease occur?
A sufficient number of bacteria that can take part in various processes of an internal nature always live in the body. They belong to a special environment and are part of the conditionally pathogenic flora. All kinds of non-specific microorganisms coexist perfectly in the body and are a special manifestation called synergism.
In order for such microorganisms to become a source of inflammation, it is necessary to create characteristic conditions. A bacterial-type urethritic disease can arise from the fact that harmful organisms penetrate the urethra, forming a pathology called inflammation.
Being on the walls of the urinary tract, the bacteria are waiting for the right moment to start their attack.
There are specific microorganisms that cause rapid pathology. These include trichomonads, ureoplasma, chlamydia, gonococcus.
The factors that create favorable conditions for the formation of a bacterial problem are commonly referred to:
- unprotected sexual intercourse,
- injuring organs located in the pelvic area and urethra,
- manipulations related to medical interventions,
- injuries in the urethra resulting from the removal of sand or stones,
- lowering the immune level.
Any of these factors can trigger a mechanism that causes activation of pathological microorganisms, which causes the inflammatory process of the mucosa.
What is the difference between female urethritis and male?
Signs of the disease in men are expressed much more clearly, which is associated with the anatomy of the body. The female urethra is hidden, located in the pelvis, is shorter and wider. For this reason, the symptoms of the disease are more erased, and the disease often flows into the chronic stage.
The urethra in the male body is located in the penis, pathology creates puffiness, redness, sticky urethra, which creates additional pain with every visit to the toilet.
Bacterial urethritis is a disease that does not cause intoxication of the body or an increase in body temperature. Ailments can be expressed by pain in the urethra, pulling pains in the abdomen and pubis. This is a local inflammation that occurs in men and women in different ways.
Having determined the exact diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe adequate therapy. In the case of bacterial urethritis, the treatment course is carried out on an outpatient basis. For better results, you should follow all the recommendations of a specialist.
During the treatment, certain rules are followed. It is necessary to completely abandon the use of alcoholic beverages, do not skip treatment procedures. You should also temporarily forget about sexual relations. You will have to adhere to some rules in nutrition, exclude spicy, smoked and pickled, consume as much liquid as possible.
It should be noted that in case of suspected urethritis, the specialist will immediately prescribe general antibacterial compounds. This is necessary for the purpose so that the time spent on passing tests is not wasted. As medications, tablets, injections and suppositories are prescribed. If this measure is neglected, the urethritis passes into the chronic stage.
Increasingly, instillations are used in treatment. This method involves the irrigation of the urethra with special antiseptic agents and with the use of a catheter. The urinary canal can be washed with bacteriological solutions.
Alternative methods of treatment
With their help, you can create a good addition to therapeutic therapy. You can take various herbal infusions and decoctions that differ in antiseptic signs and create a diuretic and antispasmodic effect. Perfectly complement the healing process:
- parsley foliage
- elderberry inflorescences,
- rosehip root.
It is necessary to take infusions and decoctions in courses, before eating, drinking in the third part of the glass. Local baths on herbal decoctions of a string or chamomile inflorescences perfectly help.
To minimize the occurrence of such a disease, it is necessary to periodically carry out preventive measures. They include examination and implementation of a therapeutic course of the organs of the urinary and reproductive systems. It is not necessary to allow hypothermia and injuries. You should control your diet, abandon addictions.
It is necessary to protect yourself during sexual relations, since the main cause of infection is here. Each person should annually check the body for the presence of diseases of the venereal group.It is necessary to correctly carry out hygiene procedures for the organs of the reproductive system in order to exclude the entry of dangerous microorganisms into them.
Experts insistently advise to avoid stress, observe the daily routine. The list of preventive measures can be continued with a dream, which should be at least eight hours. If the first signs of the disease appear, you should not engage in self-treatment.
Any person is responsible for their own health in the first place before themselves. Treatment should not be delayed so as not to get serious difficulties that can change life for the worse.
What are the causes of urethritis?
The main reasons that cause the development of urethritis in men, doctors include:
- Diseases that can be transmitted as a result of intercourse without a condom (herpes, HPV, gonococcus, Trichomonas, ureaplasma, chlamydia, etc.). In general, inflammation in the urethra becomes just a sign of such infections.
- Violation of metabolic processes (especially in the pelvic area).
- The impact on the body of various toxic substances.
- Stagnant processes occurring in the pelvic area. This leads to the development of congestive urethritis. The occurrence of stagnation of venous blood is preceded by constipation, hemorrhoids, the practice of interrupted intercourse.
- An allergy that foods, personal care products, or certain medications can cause.
- A large amount of acidic and salty foods with a lot of spices in the diet, which can irritate the mucous membranes.
Predisposing factors for inflammation of the urethra are:
- unprotected sex with carriers of infection,
- non-observance of personal hygiene rules,
- trauma to the urethra (including during medical procedures),
- urolithiasis disease,
- congestion in the pelvic organs,
- metabolic disorders
- body hypothermia,
- poor nutrition,
- allergic reactions
- urethral irritation with chemicals in body care products, spermicides, condoms, etc.
Untimely or incorrect treatment of urethritis in men is dangerous by the appearance of serious complications: pyelonephritis, cystitis, orchitis, balanoposthitis, as well as prostatitis.
How to treat urethritis?
At home, treatment of urethritis in men should be comprehensive. All procedures are carried out on an outpatient basis, medicines are selected by a specialist. The patient must scrupulously fulfill all appointments and follow certain recommendations during the treatment period. These include:
- temporary refusal of sexual intercourse,
- strict hygiene standards
- the implementation of all medical recommendations regarding the duration of the course of treatment and medication,
- refusal of bad habits (alcohol, smoking),
Mandatory diet adjustments aimed at eliminating fatty, fried, spicy foods, smoked meats, marinades, pickles, carbonated drinks, in a word, all products that can enhance the severity of the inflammatory process. The patient is recommended to drink more fluid, observe the regimen of the day, avoid hypothermia, stress and the influence of other negative factors.
On average, treatment of almost any form of urethritis takes several weeks. In no case should treatment be abandoned when signs of improvement and subsidence of the clinical picture of the disease appear. At the end of treatment, a control smear is taken from the urethral canal to confirm recovery.
What antibiotics are prescribed for urethritis?
The medicine for urethritis in men is prescribed only by the attending physician after bacteriological examination and determination of the pathogen. Improper selection of the drug can cause complications.
Antibiotics are often used in the form of tablets, injections, suppositories:
- With non-specific urethritis - Doxycycline, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Tetracycline, Ceftriaxone, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides.
- With specific inflammation of the urethra - Spiramycin, Oletetrin, Doxycycline, Cefodysim, Cefotaxime, Cefoxitin, Rifampicin, Spectinomycin.
- With gonorrhea - Miramistin, Natamycin, Nitazole, Chlorhexidine, Tinidazole, Cidipol, Metronidazole, Furazolidone, Cefaclor, Fusidine, Spiramycin.
- With candidal urethritis - Amphotericin, Levorin, Clotrimazole, Nystatin.
- With chlamydia - fluoroquinolones, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, azithromycin.
- With the trichomonas form - Metronidazole, Nitazole, Trichomonacid. The last drug is administered through installations in the urethra. A 1% solution is used. The procedure is carried out every day in a course of 5-6 days.
- With mycoplasmosis - Tetracycline.
- With the herpes virus form of the disease - Penciclovir, Acyclovir, Ganciclovir, Ribavirin.
Chronic gonorrhea urethritis requires the introduction of a solution of antibiotics into the urethra. Therapy is supplemented by taking medications based on adrenal hormones (prednisone, dexamethasone). The therapy can be supplemented by washing the urethra with antiseptics, the appointment of immunostimulants (Timalin, Myelopid), multivitamins (emphasis is on vitamins A and E). Physiotherapy is used outside the stage of exacerbation - magnetotherapy, electrophoresis, laser irradiation, treatment with ultra-high-frequency pulses are performed.
In addition to the basic course of antibacterial drugs that act to suppress the acute symptoms of the disease, other methods of therapy, such as local and physiotherapeutic procedures, are widely used.
Local procedures involve the administration of drugs directly into the urethra. For urethral instillations use Miramistin, Dioxidin, as well as hydrocortisone preparations. Local medical procedures give good results, being a component of the complex treatment of urethritis.
Physiotherapeutic treatment is used only for chronic urethritis, in acute inflammatory processes they are contraindicated. Assign electrophoresis, UHF, laser therapy, magnetotherapy. But all these methods require systematic and competent medical supervision.
At home, urethritis therapy should be complemented by proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. This is especially important when several organs become inflamed at the same time. Follow these guidelines:
- Try to eat more foods that have anti-inflammatory effects. These include carrots, celery, parsley, lingonberries and cranberries.
- Minimize the consumption of oily, excessively salty, spicy and smoked foods.
- Try to drink as much clean water as possible. It will help reduce the concentration of harmful bacteria in the urine. This will reduce the symptoms of the problem.
- To increase immunity, eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. Drink juices, jelly and stewed fruit. Cranberry juice and tea with the addition of wild rose should be a mandatory part of the diet.
- The use of alcohol is strictly prohibited. Coffee, tea and cocoa can be drunk occasionally in minimal quantities.
- Do not use foods that have an irritating effect on the urethra. These include spices, spices, garlic, onions, spinach, horseradish and radishes.
Proper nutrition should be supplemented by moderate physical activity and a complete rejection of bad habits. Try to spend more time outdoors.
It is important to understand that it is impossible to completely cure the disease with folk remedies. However, their use along with medical treatment helps to avoid relapse and accelerate recovery. For this, decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs that can be prepared at home can be used:
- Infusion made from blackcurrant leaves. This tool has an antiseptic effect and helps to enrich the body with vitamins. To prepare it, 3 tablespoons of dried leaves are poured with 250 ml of boiling water and infused until completely cooled. After that, the infusion is filtered and taken 15 minutes before meals three times a day.
- Decoction of oak bark. This remedy eliminates the pain and burning sensation that appears at the time of urination. To prepare it, 1 tablespoon of raw materials, 250 ml of boiling water is poured and held in a water bath for about 20 minutes. After cooling, the broth is filtered and taken 1 tablespoon before each meal. You can also use the broth for sedentary baths.
- Infusion of cornflower. To prepare the infusion, 1 teaspoon of dried flowers is poured with 250 ml of boiling water and infused for at least 1 hour. After this, the product is filtered and taken three times a day before meals, 2 tablespoons. The medicine helps relieve inflammation and normalize the microflora.